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Class () fj ^S L^- 












Copyright, 1916, • 
by DuFFiELD & Co. " 

OCT 19 1916 


'CI.A4 4 5:>or. 


I Dedicate This Garden Book 

to My Friend 

EKiii Wallick 



I. The Garden" Path Am) Border . . 3 

II. The Pergola ai^d Arch .... 21 

III. The Tea House in the Garden . . 37 

IV. The Garden Steps 53 

Y. Entrances 71 

VI. BniD Baths 89 

VII. Garden Seats 107 

VIII. Garden Pools 125 

IX. The Sundial in the Garden . . . 143 

X. The Fountain 163 


Tall Poplars Lend Dignity to a Garden Setting . . . 
Let Gutters of Cobblestones Line Your Path . . . 

A Successful Grass Path •. . 

A Brick-paved Path Flanked by Many-hued Iris . . . 
The Sunlight Sifts Through the Sheltering Vines of the 


Build Your Pergola with Cobblestone Supports and 

Rustic Top 

The Moss Grows Between the Stone Walk 

A Tea-house 

Stepping-stones in a Grass Path 

Lily Ponds in a Formal Garden 

Stone Steps Attractively Planned 

A Fountain that Serves as a Background for a Lily Pond 
Marble Steps Leading to the Water in a Formal Garden 
An Old-fashioned Garden Is Often Entered Under an 

Arch of Latticework 

A Fine Decorative Iron Gateway 

A Successful Entrance to a Formal Garden . . . . 
The Central Feature of the Garden May Be a Bird-bath 

A Well-placed Bird-bath 

An Ornament DELiGHTFxn.LY Used to Mark the Opening 

of Paths Through Woods 

A Formal Garden Seat 

A Simple and Attractive Garden Seat 

Stately Lilies Add Charm and Dignity to a Gravelled 



Facing p. 












A Pond-lily Pool of a Very Attractive Shape .... Facing p. 125 

A Lily Pond that Fills Charmingly a Corner of a Garden " 130 
There Is an Ever-changing Beauty to a Garden Whose 

Paths Are Broken Here and There by Pools . . " 136 

Grassy Paths Lead Pleasantly to the Sun-dial ... " 143 

The Sun-dial Is a Feature in Itself " 148 

An Old Well Used Effectively as a Decorative Feature " 154 

Narcissus Stands in the Heart of the Fountain ... " 163 
A Roman Fountain Placed Against a Very Appropriate 

Background " 166 

An Artistic Fountain Particlxarly Well Placed ... " 170 
This Wall Fountain with Its Shell Background and 

Basin Is Most Fittingly Placed " 174 


Doubtless we have all realized the allurement of 
the garden, as we walk between the beds, drinking 
in the sweet perfume of the many flowers, or as we 
watch the birds perched on the branches or lazily 
swinging on the flowers, twittering to their mates 
as they sip the nectar or prune their plumage, after 
bathing in the sparkling water of the pool. 

There is more than enjojnaient that comes to the 
garden lover through his life among the plants. He 
grows broader and becomes forgetful of the trivial 
cares and prejudices of every-day life as he 
watches their development. He comes to the gar- 
den for inspiration and finds it among the flow- 

We are by nature garden lovers, and though 
with some the feeling has not as yet been developed, 
yet deep in the depths of their soul is a yearning 
for intercourse with Nature and her lessons — 
taught through the cultivation of flowers. It spells 
Contentment, Happiness and Love. 


It is a delight to visit gardens, and study the 
character of the designer. It is no hard matter to 
read through varied planting likes and dislikes in 
the owner. It brings us closer together, this mu- 
tual love of floriculture, and it is in discussion of 
this theme that we forget the sordid phases of life. 

Visit the gardens with me, listen to the anthem of 
the birds sung at morn and eventide. Learn their 
habits, and make them friends, so that they will 
nestle into your often lonely life, bringing with 
them a gladness that is not only delightful but al- 

Many a love story has been told among the flow- 
ers, many a real story has been developed as one 
sat gazing at some flower-laden field. Joy and 
sadness has been our varied lot since we began our 
garden work, but as the years go on, gladness pre- 
dominates. We grow to look forward with a tender 
longing for the coming spring. We hang lovingly 
over the opening buds of the early flowers. We 
are glad that we, too, have grown to know the 
flowers, that we have learned through their poetic 
language solace for the wounded soul, and how to 
live better lives, through intercourse with them. 

To my many friends who have made it possible 


for me to visit their gardens, and to reproduce their 
carefully thought out schemes in pictures, I ex- 
tend my hearty thanks. It has done much to make 
not only my life but other lives happier. It is 
with the hope that others may find the same en- 
joyment in this work that I have that I send it 
forth to perform its mission and with the hope that 
it may encourage others to start gardens of their 
own and to give to them a happiness they have 
never known before. If I have accomplished this 
I have met the desire of my heart. 






"All the world's a garden and we are garden 
lovers in it." This is not a new theme, for it has 
been in existence ever since the planting of the 
early flower plots, those that were in evidence in 
our grand-dames' time. There is a distinct at- 
mosphere connected with those simple one-path 
gardens that is most delightful. It lies not only 
in the gravel paths and the stiff, box-borders, but 
in the fragrant old-fashioned flowers that were 
grown promiscuously inside the trim line of box. 
Perchance some dainty line of cinnamon pinks 
whose delicate blossoms when we find them in the 
twentieth-century gardens, carry us back vividly 
to the Colonial days when they so often formed a 
part of the garden scheme. 

Great changes have taken place in the evolution 
of the posy beds, for, with the passage of time, they 


have developed into wide expanses of floral land- 
scape, subtly moulded into charming pictures and 
fascinating vistas. 

In the planting and the planning of the flower 
beds of the present day many of the general mo- 
tives of the older gardens have been retained. They 
have, however, been enlarged upon and developed 
until they are perfected in every detail. The land- 
scape architect of to-day realizes that the achieve- 
ments of yesterday can be interwoven with the 
possibilities of to-morrow. 

As we saunter leisurely through the twentieth- 
century garden, we come occasionally upon a sim- 
ple box-border, much more scientifically treated 
than those of long ago. This special feature of 
garden culture should be planted in the early 
spring that it may obtain deep rooting, so as to re- 
sist the ravages of the winter season. The plants 
should not overcrowd but be set three inches apart 
in narrow, shallow trenches, with plenty of mulch- 
ing to insure the best results. Unlike those found 
in the gardens of Colonial days, they should be 
carefully clipped, sometimes for topiary effects. 

Here and there, we come unexpectedly upon old- 
time flower plots, showing a box-border, not like 


those of the present day, carefully trimmed, but 
scraggly and unkempt, preserved for sentiment's 
sake. They still line the central walk, much as they 
did long years ago. In those days there was no 
laying-out of gardens or creating odd designs, but, 
instead, there was a simple, narrow, dividing line, 
worked out by the removal of turf and filling in 
with earth. 

Few realize that garden culture can be divided 
into periods, each one of which is well defined, so 
that it is possible to determine where the old-fash- 
ioned ideas left off and the new-fashioned ones be- 
gan. The earliest period has a straight, simple 
path, about six feet in width. These gardens came 
into existence when our shipping was greater on 
the sea and the merchant princes demanded large 
and more elegant houses with gardens laid out in 
the rear. Many of these were planned by the mis- 
tresses of the stately homes, while some were de- 
signed by English or German gardeners, who in 
their planting reproduced the gardens across the 
seas. There are a few only that deviate from the 
general plan of the single walk dividing the beds 
and ending in a summer house, vine-clad, where 
the Colonial dames during the summer months held 


afternoon teas. These garden houses were the 
nucleus of the garden furniture that has come into 
fashion with the passing of time. 

One of the distinctive features connected with 
these gardens is the border. This varies in width 
with the size of the plot and the flowers enclosed. 
It must be borne in mind that the gardeners of 
those days knew little of the theory of color 
schemes, yet the results were pleasing to the eye, 
so much so that to-day the old-fashioned garden 
stands in a class by itself. 

With the evolution of gardens, new ideas sprang 
into existence. All landscape architects realize the 
importance of giving particular attention to the 
laying-out of the path. Here the bit of garden 
demands a straight path, yonder to bring gar- 
dens into unity a grass path should be laid, while 
level stretches demand charming floral treatment, 
wrought out through proper use of flowers in the 

Every ambitious gardener realizes that during 
the summer months, his particular garden will be 
on dress parade, and must be always at its best. 
Therefore, he gives special attention to the trim- 
ming of the borders, the smoothing of the path and 


the right coloring in beds, so that no discordant 
note be found. Every part must be kept in good 
condition, for there are no closed doors for untidi- 
ness to skulk behind. This he knows means con- 
stant and unremitting care and that he may avoid 
sameness, he changes the flower scheme every year, 
to give a fresh note to the planting of his own par- 
ticular plot. 

The greatest care must be taken that borders 
are properly balanced, for any deviation from 
this rule results in lop-sided effects that spell 
failure. No walk in any part of the garden but 
should be planned to serve a definite purpose, either 
to connect other paths or at its end to bring out 
some carefully laid plan that will lend a pictur- 
esque effect to the finished design. 

Let us take as an instance a curved path. First 
of all, we must realize that it is not following any 
haphazard plan but has a definite aim. Perchance 
it has been most carefully laid out to avoid the 
felling of a tree that is needed for picturesque 
effect, but whatever the object may be, it is ful- 
filled by the design of this particular path. 

There are to be found, quite frequently on large, 
extensive grounds, grass paths that cut the lawn. 


connecting separated gardens. In any case like 
this, how much better to introduce English step- 
ping stones. There is a picturesque coloring in 
their soft, gray hue, contrasting pleasingly with a 
line of grass between. They also break the monot- 
ony given by a solid mass of green and lend to this 
particular part of the ground an old-world as- 

Have you ever stopped to think when planning 
for your next year's garden that designs can be 
easily varied to bring out some new thought and 
make a change that is alluring? It is the careful 
introduction of these novel ideas that gives zest to 
garden culture. Every person has a different idea 
of what is right in garden culture and uncon- 
sciously treats the old plan in an individual man- 
ner. A little touch here and there goes a great way 
in producing odd effects. 

Among the many materials that can be used for 
this feature of the garden is brick, and of this there 
are many kinds. For the old-fashioned garden 
the second-hand brick gives a Colonial atmosphere. 
For the gardens of to-day it is generally better to 
use the hard, burned brick — these can be laid in 
straight lines or herring-bone fashion as fancy die- 


tates, and should show a line of straight brick or 
headers as they approach the border. This feature 
should be used generally in formal types of garden 
landscape. Great care should be taken, however, 
that the brick be laid perfectly dry and cemented 
in mortar. 

If you are looking for novelty, why not try cob- 
blestones? They are very inexpensive, particu- 
larly if you live in a seaport town where the beaches 
are strewn with them. Be sure to pick out those 
that are nearest the same size and shape, for this 
gives a better effect. There is nothing that gives 
a better backing for earth beds, especially as they 
are easily kept weeded. If the cobblestones prove 
too conspicuous for the scheme of the garden, it is 
a comparatively easy matter to plant as a back- 
ground a flowering plant that will in time fall over 
them and hide them from view. 

A turf walk is, properly speaking, the most effec- 
tive path. It also has many advantages, chief 
among them the fact that it is not hard to keep up 
and can be replaced with very little trouble, save 
the cutting of new sod. Be very careful not to 
make the mistake of laying old sods that have been 
piled for a considerable length of time and have 


thus lost much of their vigor. In order to have 
them at their best they should be freshly cut and 
laid carefully in a rich foundation, the pieces 
joined as closely as possible together and the crev- 
ices filled in with either grass seed or dirt. Plenty 
of watering means success ; still one should not be 
impatient, for it is not until a second season that 
grass comes to its own. One difficulty in a border 
like this, which can, however, be easily remedied, 
is that it needs constant cutting to keep the grass 
from overrunning the beds. 

If you are planning a garden of the English type, 
it is well to carry out the idea of introducing ir- 
regular stones for the walk. It is desirable that 
the stones should not all be of the same size, other- 
wise there will be no chance for grass and moss to 
grow between them and give them the old-world 
aspect. In gardens of this type such a path is 
really imperative, for the flowers crowd against the 
dividing line and would be much less interesting if 
stones were not introduced. 

Bear in mind, in dealing with this particular 
subject that the width of the walk, depends in a 
great measure on the size of the garden. Here a 
narrow path is all that is necessary to carry out 


the scheme ; there, a wide one seems to fit appropri- 
ately into the plan. It is not always possible to 
have gardens large enough to allow a wide path, 
yet the effect of one can be produced by a little 
contriving; for instance, if you use grass for the 
central feature with an earth border on either side. 

If you desire a successful garden you should 
seek for variety, not only in the cutting of the walk, 
but in the planting of the borders. To-day every- 
body is striving for originality and to work out 
odd ideas that still are practical. One should re- 
member, too, that no two gardens are exactly alike, 
any more than two faces bear an exact resemblance. 

In describing the border, one might liken it to 
the setting of a gem. Doubtless, it might be said 
to be artificial but so is the planting of the flower 
plot. It is not nature's work, but designed by the 
hand of man and in it harmony should be developed 
in the highest degree. 

Let us take as an example the damp garden. 
This is usually laid out in one corner of the estate. 
If we should treat it with a gravel walk, what 
would be the result — dampness and disappoint- 
ment. Now, let us change the whole plan and place 
stringers on which boards are laid, so nailed that 


they can be lifted during the winter season and 
stored away in a friendly barn or cellar. Watch 
the result and you will find it is always dry and 
practical for usage. Better still, if wearing prop- 
erties do not have to be taken into consideration, 
use cedar boughs that resemble in contour minia- 
ture logs. They fit into place as if put there by 
nature, all the more if they are bordered by ferns. 
If you build at the further end a rustic summer 
house, it gives a refreshing touch. 

Many garden lovers delight in collecting wild 
flowers, digging them up in the neighboring woods 
to blossom in their cultivated garden. Why not 
give them a home by themselves in a rough rock- 
ery? This can easily be built from stones found 
on the estate. Here we deviate from the stilted 
idea of paths and introduce stone steps. These 
should be large and rough enough to fit in with our 
plan. Hardy ferns should be planted on either 
side and rock plants between the steps. You will 
then see the wisdom of creating a path like this 
which is in sympathy with the general idea of the 

Landscape gardeners are at the present day en- 
deavoring to work out results that are in harmony 


mth any period that they are called upon to re- 
produce. Occasionally they come upon a subject 
that is very difficult to treat, such as the concrete 
walk. This is an absolute necessity in some loca- 
tions. Yet, when finished, it presents a bare ap- 
pearance and demands special treatment. Very 
successful results are produced by bright borders 
of flowering plants, and if in addition to this an 
arch of wire or rustic boughs is made for the en- 
trance and covered with rambler roses, of which 
to-day there are many varieties, a happy solution 
will be found to the perplexing problem of a color- 
less path. During the time of blossoming, the 
touch of brightness adds to the effect while later 
on the bright green of the leaves relieves the cold 
gray of the concrete. 

The late Joseph Jefferson, in speaking of gar- 
dens and their borders, once said, * ' They are all ex- 
pectation. '^ And so they are from the early spring 
when the first bulbs come into bloom until the fall- 
ing of the late chrysanthemum. As we con the 
seedman's list to prepare for the spring gardening, 
we go through the procession of the seasons noting 
the colors and finding a joy in anticipation that is 


In order to give correct handling to your paths, 
the color scheme of the borders should be taken into 
consideration. Different kinds of gardens demand 
varied treatment, and for this, the situation on the 
grounds and the type of the walk, should be care- 
fully thought out. 

For earliest bloom, one should use bulbs. To 
have them at their best they should be planted in 
the fall, about six weeks before the hard frost 
sets in. Trenches are first dug, from twelve to 
eighteen inches deep, enriched and topped with a 
layer of sand, to insure the bulbs touching nothing 
else. Each bulb should be planted six inches deep 
and the same number of inches apart. They should 
be covered with from four to six inches of straw, 
dead leaves — ^hardwood ones being best for this 
purpose — or pine branches. Great care should be 
taken that these are not removed too early in the 
spring. Years of careful experiment have devel- 
oped better colors and more strength in bulbs and 
have succeeded in producing a greater variety, both 
single to double. This evolution in bulbs makes it 
possible to choose suitable varieties for any border 

Snow drops are the first to poke their tiny heads 


up through the cold, hard earth. They rise above 
the snow, bringing gladness in their train. Then 
comes a procession of dainty bulbs including the 
hyacinth with its many hues, and the tulips, that 
stay by us until late in Ma}^, clothed in Dolly Yar- 
den gowns, or simple Quaker garb. It is a good 
plan to plant pansies among the bulbs, so that they 
will show their painted faces before the last bloom 
has disappeared. Many people in such borders 
use sweet alyssum for the outer row, but this, while 
it is decorative, is not always satisfactory for it 
grows so high that it is apt to shadow the major 
scheme. Bulbs can be left in the ground for a 
second year's blossoming or if new varieties are de- 
sired they can be carefully lifted and replaced by 
potted plants, such as the scarlet geranium or the 
dusty miller, whose soft gray sheen makes an in- 
teresting note of color as a foreground for the bed 
that stretches down to touch it, a solid mass of 
one-toned flowers. 

Within the last few years iris has become a popu- 
lar accessory for border use. One reason for this 
is that it stays in bloom from the time of its first 
opening until the hot blast of the August sun 
touches its closed head. Well may this be termed 


the * 'fairy's favorite flower," it is so dainty in its 

The rose moss or portulaea is a valuable border 
plant. It grows luxuriantly in sandy soil, where 
no moisture is retained, and seems to draw suffic- 
ient sustenance from the dews that fall at night, 
rather than from the unkindly sand which touches 
its tiny roots. One advantage in its use is that it 
grows quickly from seed, that is, if it is planted 
in a dry spot. The needle-shaped foliage is incon- 
spicuous, while the blossoms are as brilliant as pop- 
pies and are produced in large numbers. A serious 
fault, however, is that it closes during the after- 
noon. If one decides to use portulaea, choose solid 
colors rather than to m ix a mass of varied ones. 

For a shady bit of garden, why not try out del- 
phiniums ? They are not expensive, the roots cost- 
ing about a dollar and a quarter a dozen, but they 
are so graceful that they are effective for use of 
this sort. 

The plants chosen must be in harmonious con- 
trast to those that fill the beds, otherwise one shud- 
ders as they view the completed scheme and won- 
ders how it is that the gardener is so color-blind. 
Hardy borders or amiuals are used very often. 


Each of them having a distinctive charm, some gar- 
dens demanding one, and others another, so that 
one cannot dictate to the owner of a garden which 
kind is best for his use, it lies with his own whims 
and fancies, to develop beautiful combinations, and 
to work out variations of the last year's scheme, 
so that the gardens of yesterday may differ essen- 
tially from those of to-day. 

It may be that long borders of bright-eyed ver- 
benas greet our eyes as we gaze upon the vari-col- 
ored beds, or perchance gorgeous Sweet Williams, 
vieing in hue are shown. Tall rosy spikes of ly- 
thrum lift their heads, while stately hollyhocks 
uncurl their silky petals, shaking out the tucks and 
wrinkles of the bud like newly awakened butter- 
flies stretching their wings. There is a busy hum 
of bees as we saunter down the garden path, stop- 
ping now and again to watch their flight as they 
light on flowers to sip their nectar, furry with 
golden pollen dust. 

So we stand wondering what our grand-dames 
would say could they view, with us to-day, the 
transformation of the old-fashioned garden, into 
a magnificent show of rare plants in a well-devel- 
oped design. 





**I HAVE made me a garden and orchard, and 
have planted trees and all kinds of fruit. ^' Thus 
spake the wise Solomon who in all his glory found 
time to enjoy his flowers. Nowadays, blossoming 
plants are intermixed with marble fragments, and 
the garden contains many interesting features that 
were then unknown. Sir William Temple, on his 
return from a visit to Holland, where he went for 
garden study, tells us that he found that four 
things were absolutely necessary in order to com- 
plete a perfect garden. *^ Flowers, Fruit, Shade, 
and Water.'' 

Originality is to-day the key-note in every gar- 
den design. Gardens have been developed with 
the passing of time so that instead of one type we 
find an infinite variety of styles, each one of them 
so distinctive that one need have little fear of repi- 
tition in results. Here we find the formal, the Ital- 
ian garden while over yonder is the wild, and the 



rambling one. They are carefully designed to 
bring out some individual scheme. Unlike the lit- 
tle posy plots of long ago with their unobtrusive 
green arbors, now we come upon a large space 
which has been laid out for picture effects. This is 
the work of the landscape architect, who takes as 
muclT pride in his garden structures, as does the 
architect in the design of his house. He vies with 
his rivals in producing odd effects with marble 
fragments and artistic combinations in his color 

Each one of the many types, that are shown at 
the present day, shows distinctive features. These 
appear and disappear in endless variety, and 
among them are the pergola and the arch, the lat- 
ter a grandchild of the green arbor that was in evi- 
dence in our grand-dames' time. 

Unlike those seen in the old-fashioned gardens, 
it is not always built of wood. Sometimes it is so 
placed as to define the terraces, leading with its 
shadowy treatment to delightful glimpses of vistas 
beyond, well laid out for this very purpose. Again 
we find it shadowing the garden at one side, where 
it makes a covered walk, under which one can 
pass, and view the garden pleasantly. 


Simple and unostentatious were the early gar- 
dens, for not until 1750, was there found any trace 
of garden architecture in the North. It was about 
that year that one Theodore Hardingbrook, came 
to this country bringing with him a fund of infor- 
mation to strengthen and enlarge this line of work. 
He gathered around him a faithful, interested lit- 
tle band of students, and taught them new ideas, 
and awakened an ambition for new designs in Co- 
lonial flower plots. Then was evolved the little 
summer house with its cap of green, which stood 
generally at the foot of the garden path ending 
the central walk and it was then that the green 
arbor came into existence, spanning the centre of 
the little plot. Covered with vines it made a pleas- 
ant break in the otherwise straight lines of the old- 
fashioned garden, and it also gave a touch of old- 
world gardens to the new- world plan. 

This was not the commencement of pergola con- 
struction, which had its origin in the vineyards of 
sunny Italy. They were not like those of to-day, 
wonderfully beautiful in design but rude and rus- 
tic, roughly put together as a support for the vines. 
Through the intersecting crevices fell glorious clus- 
ters of pale green and royal purple grapes, to ripen 


in the glimmering shade. These rough arbors 
shadowed by hardy vines, graced the Italian hill- 
sides, when Columbus as a wool comber's son frol- 
icked the summer days away long years before he 
discovered the new country that lay across the sea. 

The birth of this feature was not romantic but 
plebeian, for it was built for practical use only. 
The hardy Italian grape growers had come to a 
realizing sense that their fruit throve better if held 
aloft, and so they conceived the idea of a support- 
ing arbor. As the bright sun filtered through the 
vines, the picturesqueness caught the attention of 
gardeners on large estates and from this was 
evolved the long pillared pathways over which cul- 
tivated vines were twined, casting their long shad- 
ows far over the path beyond in Roman gardens. 

When larger and better gardens were demanded 
to meet the architecture of the large, square, Colon- 
ial homes, green arbors were popular. They were 
crudely put together, often the work of the village 
carpenter, simple and unconventional in their 
treatment yet prettily draped with vines. During 
the summer months they were especially pictur- 
esque and inviting, with their little wooden seats 
placed on either side. To the garden came the gal- 


lant, dressed in knee breeches and wearing pow- 
dered wig, there to meet his lady love, bending low 
he plucked from the branches of the trailing vine 
a flower to deck his fair beloved's hair. 

These green arbors gave a distinct individuality 
to the old-time garden. Over them were carefully 
twined the Dutchman's pipe. It showed nestled 
away beneath its leaves, tiny, almost invisible little 
green pipes that were coveted by the little ones 
for *' Let's pretend smoke." Invariably, the yel- 
low and white Baltimore Belle rose sometimes 
known as the Seven Sisters, lent their charm, 
boldly peering out from under the vine to watch 
the lovers seated on the simple seats. They gave 
them a welcoming nod as they swayed to and fro in 
the passing breeze, mingling their blossoms, with a 
dainty Scotch rose and the pink moss, that seem- 
ingly grew on the same stem. It is the former rose 
that was the greatest favorite, for it lasted longer, 
giving dashes of yellow like sunshine to light the 
dark, autumnal days. 

Now and again, we come unexpectedly upon a 
garden such as this. It lies in the heart of a Co- 
lonial city, hidden away from passers-by behind a 
high paling fence. 


The twentieth century pergola in the modern 
garden lends itself to a great variety of treatment. 
It is an important feature and should be properly 
treated in order to bring out the right effect. Often 
the amateur, when dabbling with garden culture, 
neglects this feature on his grounds and gives it a 
wrong setting. 

It must be remembered that the mere setting out 
of a garden does not always bring about the best 
results. It should be done mth some definite aim 
in view, such as color or suitability to situation. In 
this way only can one obtain perfection. There 
should be taken into consideration the formation 
of the different beds, especially those that are in 
close proximity. It cannot be a successful experi- 
ment unless carefully planned. 

If you have never tried to form combinations 
that will intensify the loveliness of the grounds by 
a happy gathering of right colors, you have missed 
a delightful experience. This idea does not come 
quickly to the amateur floriculturist, but once he 
fully grasps it, he turns as if by instinct to the 
structural part of the garden plan. It is then 
that he realizes that while he has not seemed to 
have progressed during his first year's work, yet 


he has laid a solid foundation that will stand him 
in good stead. In the midst of his garden he rears 
a house of flowers, placing it in a situation where 
he can watch the growth and maturing of the 
plants. Each corner of the garden is given separ- 
ate treatment. In some gardens, where the space 
is small, it would be impossible to carry out the 
pergola scheme. Then it can be simplified and 
condensed into the child of the pergola, the arch, 
excellent for decorative effects. This means for 
flower showing can be made of mre, simply fast- 
ened to posts, bent into shape, or of wood and 
painted white ; either of these methods is satisfac- 
tory and can, if properly used, be most successful. 

The arch, to fit in with the garden plan, should 
span the entrance. Over it should be trained 
either a blossoming vine or many, to work out 
a succession of bloom. Sometimes it will be the 
wisteria with its drooping clusters of lavender, or 
the rambler rose found in such a variety of colors 
to-day. These two with the clematis, are especially 
adapted for this purpose, if one is willing to use 
proper fertilizer and depth of planting. 

In order to insure better and more prolific 
growth, the vines should be cut back to about six or 

2q garden ornaments 

eight inches in height when first set out. It must 
be remembered in deaHng with them that they are 
like little children, each one requiring individual 
care. We must also be sure that the soil is fre- 
quently stirred to avoid caking. 

Properly placed, the curved trellis is a joy. It 
gives a decorative setting to the garden proper. 
As the eye travels down the path, it greets a charm- 
ing bit of color in the bed of solid green that tops 
the roof. 

The arch would not be a proper note of setting 
for every garden. There are only certain kinds 
with which it blends. The narrow path demands 
it, for it needs a break to show it at its best. A 
judicious fashioning of a series of arches, extend- 
ing here and there along the entire depth of the 
walk is sometimes attractive. They serve to break 
the monotony and add a flower note that is delight- 
ful. In the planning of these, great care should be 
taken that they are set at proper intervals. They 
should be on the same level and correspond in 
width, otherwise the result would be a wavy line 
that is most distressing. 

The color scheme depends on garden planting. 
If lavender is chosen it should be reproduced all 


through the line. Do not be so foolish as to choose 
one vine only but plant them in order to make a 
succession of bloom. One does not wish to view a 
spot of color now and a mass of green later on. 

There are so many different kinds of vines that 
can be planted for this use, each one of which is 
admirable, that it is hard to choose. Commencing 
with the earliest why not take the American or the 
loose-cluster wisteria. It has many advantages 
over other vines, in that it is a strong grower and 
bears an abundant cluster of flowers resembling the 
sweet pea in formation. 

One can reasonably assert, that the wisteria is 
the leading flower for the pergola or arbor. It dons 
a rich and graceful foliage and unlike other vines, 
has two distinct seasons of bloom. It is especially 
good if one wishes to carry out a one-tone color 
scheme, making lavender the key-note, and using 
this particular vine for the early bloom in May, at 
which time the luxuriant clusters of drooping flow- 
ers show their wonderful shading as they peer 
through the arches dropping down below the leafy 
growth and making a note of exquisite beauty. In 
August, when they show their second season of 
bloom, the flowers are less abundant. 


They should be followed by the Clematis Jack- 
man. This vine, if it reaches maturity, is most ef- 
fective, but it has the distinct disadvantage that 
though it starts right, and sends out shoots, they 
are apt to blight early and disappoint the gardener 
by dying before putting forth its wonderfully beau- 
tiful flowers. June, the month of roses, is a suit- 
able time for one to watch for the blossoming of 
this vine. 

Many people avoid the Coboea Scandens on ac- 
count of the large, conspicuous flowers it produces. 
They make a decided mistake when they shun this 
particular vine, for it has good qualifications for 
pergola covering. No vine grows more rapidly, 
as it reaches often from twenty-five to thirty feet 
in a single season. It bursts into blossom in July, 
in rich, purple, trumpet-shaped flowers. 

For the successful growth of vines many things 
have to be considered but principally the soil. The 
amateur makes a mistake in starving the ground, 
and thus losing half the quality it would otherwise 
have had. In order to obtain the best results, put 
plenty of barn-yard manure, or bone meal, at the 
foot of the trellis, and this should be plentifully 
renewed at the commencement of each year. 


Rambler roses are one of the most effective treat- 
ments for arbor or pergola growth, and the most 
popular of these are the white, yellow, crimson and 
pink. Each year new varieties are put upon the 
market and if one wishes to follow the new ideas 
they will be forced to constantly change the plants. 

In some cases, the pergola is used to form a trell- 
ised pavilion or summer house to shelter a marble 
statue and again with carved setting to outline a 
bed, as the central feature around which the flowers 
are arranged. Thus the simple vineyard trellis 
has been transformed into a gem of graceful con- 
struction, and we find it to-day, with its slender 
marble columns, supporting a delicately carved 
marble roof of slabs, over and through which the 
green of the vine, and the glint of the flower hover, 
dipping down between the intervening sections, in 
festoons of green and color. 

It can well be called a distinctive summer struc- 
ture, for with the sun streaming through its mass 
of vines, it shadows the walks from May until late 
October. In the long winter months boxed in it 
stands like a sentinel guarding the long, bare 
paths, and showing a leafless network of inter- 
lacing vines. 


The pergola of to-day is not like that of yes- 
terday. When first introduced into our gardens 
it was taken up on many small estates, and so 
badly designed that it combined badly with the 
garden. It was then it fell into disfavor and was 
pronounced a failure for use in our garden 

But landscape gardeners, with an eye to the 
unique, felt that it was a necessary rounding-out 
of the garden design, and rescued from ignominy, 
it took its place in right surroundings, in the heart 
of the garden with a border of elaborate flower 
designs. Garden seats were placed inside and when 
it fronted on an Italian garden, a fountain was 
often introduced, the musical tinkle of the spouting 
water giving a special charm. 

Among the many designs the simplest is a simple 
rustic frame structure, appropriate for small or 
wild gardens. It is formed of cedar posts driven 
four feet into the ground, and reaching to the 
height of eight feet. This is covered with a beam 
or a slab roof structure over which is trained the 
morning glory, the California creeper, or the grape. 
This latter is much used, the picturesqueness of the 
ripening fruit adding to its attractiveness. These 


pergolas are generally eight feet wide and have for 
a flooring irregular flags through which peer grass 
or moss. 

This type of garden furniture is perfectly well 
adapted to Italian, English, or Colonial types of 
architecture, and is constructed often of marble. 
It is not merely an ornament but a useful adjunct 
to a garden, and can be made of concrete, or cob- 
blestone, if one does not wish to go to the expense 
of using marble. 

There is a modern form of this feature that is a 
development from century-old customs, the porch- 
pergola which is fast supplanting the old covered 
porches of yesterday. This is designed with an 
open, vine-covered roof. It gives an added charm 
to the exterior of the house and furnishes a shady 
nook for sunny days, without the drawback of the 
old porch whose roof darkened the house in winter 
by withholding the sun. 

No one, no matter how small their grounds, need 
deny themselves a pergola. It is such an import- 
ant feature and so decorative that it is almost a 
necessity. For the little backyard it may be simply 
a rustic porch planted in the middle of the gar- 
den. Properly laid out, it can be used as an out-of- 


doors living room. Across the end a hammock can 
be swung, while table and chairs can be fitted in 
at one side. 




There is a delightful imaginary intimacy that 
seemingly exists between we garden lovers who 
live in the twentieth century and those of early 
days. So closely are we connected by a common 
band of sympathy that we eagerly scan their books 
to glean here and there some important bit of gar- 
den lore that can be introduced into our work of 
to-day. It is this pleasant mingling of old and 
new-world gardens that gives to present-day de- 
signs such a delightful atmosphere. 

One of the old-time floriculturists, John Lyle, 
tells us in his old-fashioned way, about the flowers 
that bloomed ages before our grand-dames were 
born. ''Gentlemen,'^ he says, "what flour e like 
you best in all this border? Here be fine roses, 
sweete violets, fragrant primroses, gille floures, 
carnations, sops of wine, sweete John, and what 
may please you at sight." Surely we see in retro- 
spect, the gardens of that early day, and we come 



more and more to realize that all through the ages, 
the hand of Man has fashioned nothing more beau- 
tiful than a garden of flowers. The most famous 
poets have not found any more ideal trysting spot 
in which to place their lovers. 

Each individual part of the flower garden has its 
own distinctive charm. It lies not solely with the 
flowers that bloom so profusely in the beds nor with 
the marble fragments, for the romance of it all is 
centered in the little summer house, as it was 
quaintly named by our ancestors in the long ago. 
In these little tea houses, built in a retired part of 
the garden, the mistress loved to spend a pleasant 
summer afternoon, seated inside knitting flower 
thoughts into a shapely bag or reading some de- 
lightful book, which dropped from her hand, as she 
sat dreamily watching the unfolding of some favor- 
ite flower. 

Let us enter one of these gardens, rich in its sum- 
mer garb, walk slowly down the path, stopping now 
and again to view some bud slowly unfold its pet- 
als one by one, disclosing a new specimen to be 
added to the ever-increasing number that are com- 
prised in the floral scheme, and waving a welcome 
as it is tossed to and fro by every passing breeze. 


Over there against the white paling fence stands 
the stiff hollyhock nodding his satiny head to greet 
the dainty heliotrope who glances coquettishly up 
to meet his eye. Nearby is a dialetrea or bleeding 
heart, the pet of the little ones, who pluck them to 
form tiny boats with snow white sails to float down 
the lily pond. Bursting into bloom behind the stiff 
box border is the old-time ''piny," sending bits of 
color into the sober green. 

None of the old Colonial gardens were considered 
complete without an ever varying assortment of 
bloom. There were the Sweet Williams, Bouncing 
Bet, and perky little Johnny-jump-up, sending 
greetings to his comrades nearby. Flowers are 
everywhere, they peer out at us from hidden cor- 
ners, swing their heads in very ecstasy of enjoy- 
ment of their being. 

Simplicity was the key-note in the construction 
of those summer houses that came into existence 
during the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
They stand for the first type of garden furniture 
made in our country, coming into vogue after the 
close of the grim struggle for existence made by our 
Puritan forbears. Then when the tide turned, and 
money flowed into the colonies, houseowners had 


more time to devote to garden culture. Behind the 
large Colonial houses sprang into existence gar- 
dens devoted to flowers, the owners doing the best 
they could with the material at hand. These de- 
lightful little plots secluded from the world out- 
side by high paling fences were the homes of the 
old-fashioned flowers, many of them descendants 
of the originals, brought over in the ships that flrst 
touched our shores. 

They were not like the twentieth-century ones 
constructed of marble or concrete clothed with 
vines and standing in a wealth of up-to-date 
blooms, showing slender marble columns and 
carved capitals supporting the marble roof. 

Rather are they covered with plain, everyday 
vines, such as the Dutchman's Pipe with its heavy 
leaving, clambering roses and the Bitter Sweet or 
Roxbury Waxwork, whose drooping bunches of 
yellow and red poke their heads through the lattice 
work, making a bit of bright color all through the 
winter months. This when the ground is covered 
with snow livens up the surroundings. On either 
side are planted a wealth of timely flowers, these 
include the Sweet William, the Hooded Larkspur, 
and the many-colored Phlox. 


Many of these little garden houses show such 
a variety of form that they are interesting, fitting 
into their surroundings as if they had always been 
there. Some are square, formed like a large box, 
depending for their picturesqueness on their cov- 
erings of vines. Others are round, and still again 
we find oblong summer houses, each one fitted up 
with seats and sometimes a rustic table. 

Occasionally, we come upon a more pretentious 
one that is two stories in height. They were 
planned in the early nineteenth century, some of 
these are still standing and among them we find 
that of Elias Haskett Derby, designed by Sam- 
uel Mclntyre, Salem's noted architect and wood- 
carver. For years it stood on the grounds of the 
summer home of Mr. Derby and to-day is so well 
preserved that it seems as it it had been recently 
built. Exquisite carving is a feature of this par- 
ticular tea house, where rural images top the roof. 

It is only in the gardens of the rich, that elabor- 
ate tea houses are foimd, simple designs grace the 
little gardens and are in harmony with their sur- 
roundings. The rustic summer house has its own 
mission to fulfill. Its cost can be determined by 
conditions. Some are finished in elaborately deco- 


rative designs while others show plain treatment- 
The best kind of wood to be used for this pur- 
pose is the red cedar which has wonderful lasting- 
qualities. It is more expensive than the locust but 
out-wears any wood on the market. Great care 
should be taken that the supports be placed deep 
enough to avoid throwing by the heavy winter 
frost. Holes should be dug at least four feet deep, 
and squares of stone or cement pounded into the 
bottom to prevent its coming in contact with the 
earth and rotting. This makes a solid foundation, 
and durable. Do not have the roof made flat, so 
that water can stand upon it and rot it, but raise it 
slightly and either shingle or thatch it. 

This last is an old-time handicraft that has re- 
cently been revived. Following the old English 
rule, reeds are more endurable, while straw is 
admissible. An advantage of its use is that it 
grows handsomer with age. In its second year it 
has collected moss, weeds and plants, and these, 
matted down and weather-beaten, give it the hue 
of a gray lichen. If properly treated it will last 
for years. 

One should, if possible, when planning the gar- 
den, include a summer house. There is no more 



enjoyable feature that can be constructed on the 
grounds. Its design, size, situation and type, must 
correspond with the period of the garden. A for- 
mal lay-out should, in order to be correct, receive 
entirely different treatment in its setting from the 
Italian, while the rambling depends upon simpler 
characteristics to produce correct results. Rustic 
tea houses fit into this project appropriately. They 
would be entirely incongruous if placed in Italian 
gardens elaborate in their plan and full of wonder- 
ful bits of marble fragments transplanted from 
foreign lands. 

Fortunately for us, there are so many different 
types of gardens that one is not continually finding 
a repetition. Garden houses, covered with bark, 
fit into simple plans, such as the rambling and the 
wild gardens, their rustic effect being in harmony 
with the flowers and beds. 

It is one thing to plan a summer house but quite 
another to pick out a suitable situation. It should 
not be placed in the heart of the flowers more es- 
pecially where there are tall blossoms. Let the beds 
in the foreground be low and show quiet colors, 
shading the height and brightness as they go 
farther afield, the most conspicuous being used 


for the extreme edge. Here, like a beautiful pic- 
ture, they fit into the landscape and produce cor- 
rect effects. 

Level stretches do not always bring about right 
results. If your ground slopes to the garden edge 
why not design a rustic tea house to fit into the 
hillside ? Should you visit it of a clear afternoon, 
seat yourself on the wooden settle and glance 
around you, you will be delighted with the view 
obtained. Below is the garden rolled out like a 
carpet brightly patterned at your feet, smooth 
stretches of lawn between rest the eyes as they gaze 
off to the horizon when the blue of the sky seems to 
melt into the masses of waving bloom. 

Do not start this feature of the garden unless you 
have first planned situation, size and cost, other- 
wise you will be disappointed, and may feel it is 
more expensive than you wished. If you do not 
care to bed it underneath, you will be sorry. Every 
house of this sort should have a hard ashes or ce- 
ment foundation in order to keep out the damp- 
ness. This is a serious fault which if not carefully 
watched results in quick rotting of the wood and 
constant expense. It is better to start right and in 
the end it will cost less. Posts used for supports 


should be made of cedar or locust, driven four feet 
into the ground and resting on stone supports, 
used as preservatives. They can be elaborately de- 
signed or simple in finish and if plenty of air and 
light are wished for, trellis supports can be used, 
but if it demands shade, shingles or canvas painted, 
are advisable, the former better for rounded effects 
and the latter when a flat surface is used. 

Marble is used prominently in Italian gardens, 
whose elaborate setting demands striking effects. 
Give the tea house a cover of soft green vines, 
dotted here and there with a bit of color and it will 
be a joy forever, taking on a dignity that is in keep- 
ing with its surromidings. Cement, no matter 
where it is used, is always effective. In coloring 
and lines it seemingly fits into the elaborate land- 
scape scheme and it improves with age. There is 
an advantage in the use of cement, in that it costs 
nothing for repairs, is fireproof, does not collect 
vermin, and is never shabby. With its clinging 
vine cover, it is a desirable material for use in the 
construction of tea houses when wood and marble 
are not suitable. 

There is a romantic charm in vine-clad tea 
houses. The clinging vine lends a picturesqueness 


to the slender columns and the slanting roof em- 
phasizes the beauty of it all. 

There are so many decorative vines that are suit- 
able for its use that it would be impossible to name 
them all. 

For marble, delicate, tender climbers are the 
best. For concrete a larger leaf can be used to give 
more stable effects, while for rustic tea houses, the 
large, hardy vines and stronger climbers are more 
suitable. Each one has its own use, and appears at 
its best in congenial environment. The tiny can- 
ary-bird vine would make little show if allowed to 
clamber over rustic supports, while the Boston or 
Japanese ivy are especially adapted for this treat- 
ment. This is on account of the small, flat leaf 
that clings to the side, helping out the design with- 
out a deep massing of leaves. 

Some summer houses depend upon hardy vines 
for their cover and others on tender climbers 
whose delicate tendrils wind in and out clouding 
but not hiding the exterior coloring. It is the wise 
man who is able to provide a suitable over-spread 
for houses of this description. It must be remem- 
bered that it is not the cover alone but the planting 
that surrounds it that aids in the picturesque effect. 


There is as much need of careful thought here as 
there would be in any part of the scheme. For 
right coloring, height, and time of blossoming 
help or mar the plan. 

There is as much difference in the growth of 
vines as there is in children. Some to be at their 
best require a very rich soil, while others will do 
equally well if it is poorer. The important thing, 
if you wish successful results, is to give them plenty 
of food, plenty of water and look out for a proper 
insecticide, in order not to retard their growth. A 
general rule that is permissible for almost any 
grounds is to dig a ditch from three to four feet 
deep and put in the bottom a foot of rotted manure. 
This can better be attended to in the fall, leaving 
time for it to get well soaked into the gromid and 
ripen before planting. Fill in alternate layers of 
soil and manure until the trench is even with the 
ground. In clay soil, it is better in order to lighten 
it to mix in a little sand. 

For a rustic summer house, where heavy plant- 
ing is needed, a honeysuckle is effective. The scar- 
let or Sempervirens is a very decorative variety 
and this differs greatly from the Japanese one, 
bearing tubular scarlet flowers that continue in 


blossom all summer. Of the many varieties this is 
the freest and the best. Its leaves are a blueish 
green which make a pleasing contrast with the 
coral color of the flower. 

The Clematis is always effective and is the best 
vine of medimn growth in existence. Its small, 
white, star-shaped flowers, deliciously fragrant, 
cover the vine completely in August. The Japan- 
ese Clematis or Paniculata is most attractive. It 
prefers a sunny position, the foliage is handsome 
and at the end of August it bursts into a wonder- 
ful mass of fragrant, pure white, star-like flowers 
that last nearly a month. 

For shady places, the Helix or English ivy is 
advisable. This well-known, small-leafed ivy is 
perfectly hardy in this section and is much used 
for covering the ground in shady places where 
grass refuses to grow. Young growth sometimes 
gets winter killed, but this is due to sunburn rather 
than frost. 

For tea houses painted white and for concrete, 
wisteria takes a prominent place. It grows equally 
well in city and country, being able to withstand 
the smoke of cities. Of these the Multijuga loose 
cluster is advisable. It is not so strong a grower as 


the Chinese varieties but distinguished from them 
by long, loose clusters of purple flowers sometimes 
obtaining a length of two feet. 

The Crimson Glory Grape Vine, Coignetiae, is a 
strong grower, showing large, heart-shaped leaves, 
ten inches long, deep rich green on top and bright 
yellow beneath, which assume a brilliant scarlet in 
autumn. The grapes are black and form a pleas- 
ing contrast to the bright colors of the leaves. 

The Canary Bird Vine is suitable for either this 
kind of a tea house or a marble one. It is a beau- 
tiful, rapid, annual grower and when in blossom, 
the charming little canary-colored blooms bear a 
fancied resemblance to a bird with wings half ex- 
panded. Do not forget the Cardinal Climber which 
is a cross between the Cyprus Vine and the Star 
Glory. It attains a height of thirty feet or more 
with a beautiful form like lacirdated foliage and 
is literally covered with a blaze of circular fiery 
cardinal red flowers from midsummer until frost. 
The flowers are about one and one-half inch in 
diameter and are borne in clusters from five to 
seven blossoms each. Wherever it has been grown 
it has attracted favorable comments. It delights in 
a warm sunshiny situation and good soil. 


The Kudzu Vine or Peuraria Thunbergiana is 
very popular. It came from Japan and is still rare. 
Its flowers are large clusters similar to a white 
Hydrangea and when in flower during July and 
August make a wonderful display. It is one of 
the best of the flowering vines to plant against a 
wall as it clings naturally to any rough surface. 

The plants selected for either side of the tea 
house need as much care in choosing right colors 
as do the vines. 





The air was laden with the sweet fragrance of 
flowers. They wafted a delightful welcome to the 
hardy explorers, who, worn with the long voyage, 
viewed for the first time the rocky shores of New 
England. Their soothing influence brought heart 
to the wearied men, as they revelled in the spicy 
odors that brought in their train pleasant thoughts 
of the wonderful gardens they had left behind 
them. From the sandy coast of Florida to the bleak 
New England shores they felt its enticing power. 
So pungent was the perfume, that it touched the 
heart of Barlow, one of the commanders of Ral- 
eigh's expedition who wrote on landing on the 
newly discovered shore, "We smelt so sweet and 
strong a smell, as if we had been in the midst of 
some delicate garden. The woods were not such as 
we find in Europe, barren and fruitless, but the 
highest and reddest cedars, pines, cypresses, and 

many others of excellent quality. Of grapes we 



found a plenty climbing over every shrub and tree 
down to the waters very edge. I think in all the 
world there is not the like in abundance." 

Among the earliest settlers, came a colony of 
Spaniards choosing for their home the sunny 
shores of Florida. Here in the heart of the wood- 
land they made clearings, laying out extensive 
grounds that followed no set plan, but with sem- 
blance of the old-world garden. Here they planted 
for coolness and shade, vines and trees, laid out 
their grounds with walks, paved like mosaic with 
vari-colored stones. In these gardens no semi- 
tropical plants, such as abounded on every side, 
were planted. It has always been man's way when 
warring with the wilderness that lay beyond his 
door, to gather into the enclosure flowers and 
plants that had been dear to his heart in his far- 
away native land, to re-establish the atmosphere of 
his old home in new surroundings. 

The colonists who settled on the southern shores 
of Virginia, were men of rank, wealthy men, who 
had left stately homes to settle in this unknown 
land. In the lay-out of their gardens they intro- 
duced the Elizabethean style of floriculture, fol- 
lowing the fashion of the English gardens of that 


day. These old gardens showed terraces, steps, 
leading from walk to walk, paths laid at right 
angles, through which one walked to view the 
spaces intricately designed with *' knotted" beds 
and mazes, each one of which conformed to details 
in the buildings of their stately homes. 

There were the first steps laid out in gardens in 
America, a novel feature that has been evolved 
into elaborate designs with the passing of the years. 
To-day no garden is complete that does not show 
some form of steps or terrace. 

Rockeries have come into vogue not only in large, 
elaborate garden plots but in simple little home 
grounds. They are approached by steps of stone 
that correspond with the rough, rural aspect of this 
feature of garden culture. Shy wild flowers peep 
timidly out from their homes between the crevices 
of the rock. Here in the early spring we find the 
cup-shaped crocus with its yellow tongue nestled 
contentedly in among the brown furred fern 
fronds, that soon will unfurl in dainty loveliness. 
Leading from the steps are grass banks and low 
walks, surrounding the rockery and affording 
pleasant promenades, from which to view the gar- 
den in its entirety. 


Like every other plan contrived by man, the gar- 
den step should be fashioned to fit into its proper 
place, adding and not detracting from the general 
picturesqueness. It depends upon the personality 
of the creator as to its success, for steps while seem- 
ingly a minor detail, can add or detract from a gar- 
den's beauty materially. 

One should never swerve from the thought that 
practicability should be the motive in planning 
stepping stones to comiect different levels of your 
garden. They should not be added just for appear- 
ance sake, any more than one should wear a showy 
gown to attract attention. They should carry out 
some well-thought-out plan. 

It would be bad taste to introduce rustic steps 
into a formal garden, as much so as it would to 
place delicately wrought slabs of marble in the 
heart of a thicket. One should, that is if they wish 
to excel other creators in the introduction of origi- 
nal ideas, think out each individual part of the 
ground assigned for garden purposes and deter- 
mine where each feature can make the best show- 
ing. It is then and then only that we come to a 
realizing sense not only of the kind of material that 
should be used but the shape and the setting. 


There should be a definite purpose in the use 
of this particular feature and the most important 
one is that it should be so arranged that one can 
reach different levels easily. There should be no 
precipitous pitch that makes one feel while ascend- 
ing that they are performing tiresome gymnastic 
feats. This necessitates that they should be con- 
structed on a gradual incline, thus making the as- 
cent so easy that one is hardly conscious they are 
walking always upward until they have reached 
the top, and stand on level ground. This is often 
not enough considered and yet is most important. 

In laying the stepping stones, there should be 
definite proportions thought out between the ris- 
ers, breadth of the treads and the height between. 
Any variation would produce awkward results. 
Great care should be taken in choosing slabs either 
of stone or marble that are of the same size. 

If the steps connect different parts of the garden 
scheme or lead to a rock garden, they should be 
cunningly introduced into the side of the ascent, 
placed so that they will add to the picturesque- 
ness of the effect. They should break the hillside 
pleasingly, so that when completed they will form 
a pleasant picture, delightful for the eye to gaze 


upon. More than this, there should be planting, 
not only between the risers but on either side, 
and this requires careful thought, for a stately 
hollyhock rearing its gorgeous stock of rich color- 
ing would be entirely out of place while delicate 
ferns or humble rock plants emphasize the desired 

If the height of your step should be low, then 
risers, six inches in height would be in good form, 
and the treads in order to correspond must be 
twelve and a half inches in width. Should, how- 
ever, five inches be the height needed, then an 
additional inch and a half should be added to the 
treads. This point is such an important one that 
garden owners and landscape architects should see 
that it is properly carried out, if they wish to get 
the right results. 

Ramping steps, if successfully developed, brings 
about an additional ease in mounting. This can be 
accomplished by placing the tread so that it shall 
imperceptibly slope downward. This is not an easy 
matter to accomplish successfully. It requires 
much care, so that the steps shall not slope too no- 
ticeably and yet enough to add to the comfort of 
the garden lover who walks from path to path 


using the steps to aid him in reaching the upper 
level of the ground. This idea of ramping is not 
original, for it has been carried out in the old 
Italian gardens for centuries, but it is only within 
recent years that it has been successfully devel- 
oped by landscape gardeners in our country. 

Two important things connected with these stair- 
ways are ease and comfort. There is no doubt but 
within the last few years, marvels have been accom- 
plished by introducing them into steep hillsides. 
In this way they connect the lower level and the 
terrace, making it practical to develop unused land 
for flower purposes. 

The placing of steps cannot be determined by 
cast-iron rules, rather should good taste predomi- 
nate. Nothing can give such an awkward look to 
your garden or terrace as a series of narrow, 
cramped stairs. If, however, you should in the 
same place introduce a flight ample in proportion, 
then even if it is a small space there will be im- 
parted to it an agreeable air of breadth. 

Be sure that each step should extend farther to 
the side than the one above it. They should be 
rectangular so that the outline of the stair mass is 
pyramidal or circular in formation. If stone is 


used, a very good result is brought about through 
the use of carefully selected field stone or cobble. 
There are sheltering crevices in which to plant tiny 
roots which when grown add much to the general 
appearance of the whole. If the garden is a formal 
one, a design in which architectural features play 
an important part, one should take great care in 
the arrangement of this flight. There is nothing 
that gives such a delightful atmosphere as a well- 
planned stairway. It conveys a much better pic- 
ture than does a vista of successive flights of steps 
that ascend to higher grounds. 

The principal use for a feature such as this, is 
found to be in informal or unpretentious lay-outs, 
yet, fashioned in marble it is shown in the most 
elaborate Italian gardens found in this country. 
It takes on such a variety of forms and is available 
for so many purposes that it is fascinating to study 
where it will give best effects. Sometimes it helps 
out in the making of a garden pool. Here it is 
specially alluring, forming as it does, a step from 
one little world into another. 

If you wish originality in your work, do not at- 
tempt to copy from the plans of others. Surely 
there is no lack of material from which to draw and 


there is no reason why steps cannot be placed in 
any sort of a garden nook. The material depends 
on the style of garden, but wooden steps are not 
generally advisable on account of their rotting, 
which makes them need constant repair. It is far 
better to use stone, slabs of granite, concrete or 
marble, for each one of these has the lasting quali- 
ties that make them durable. 

Measure the space carefully before the work is 
commenced. You should make allowances for 
crevices between each step so that suitable planting 
may be carried out. It is a very good idea to have 
the wide spreading plants placed near the bottom, 
graduating to those of more moderate growth at 
the top. Careful consideration should also be 
given to the right planting on either side. Low 
plants should border the step with a background 
of taller ones. They may, if you like, be used to 
express the idea of balusters on either side and are 
much more picturesque than real ones. 

Do not forget that rich soil should be employed, 
for the plants need it to grow successfully. They 
require sustenance just as we need meat to feed 
our bodies. In many cases it can be rich loam 
taken from the woods, in other instances rotted 


manure can be used for a foundation with a heavy 
soil covering. Great care should be taken to make 
proper planting, for delicate growth near hardj 
is disastrous, the stronger plants absorbing the 
strength of the weaker ones and doing permanent 
harm. Do not flatter yourself that once planted 
nature will do the rest. This part of the ground 
demands continual care, for weeds — plants' ene- 
mies — will intrude and must be carefully removed 
lest they feed upon the soil, taking away the rich- 
ness and starving the plants. Water is a necessity, 
for plants like human beings grow thirsty all the 
more when exposed to the dry heat of the summer 
season. For best effects a sprinkler should be 
used and it should be borne in mind that the plants 
should be thoroughly soaked and not given merely 
a surface treatment. The importance of this can- 
not be over-estimated, or through lack of proper 
drink the plants will be in no condition to put out 
their full strength during their season of blossom- 
ing. Better results will be obtained if each fall 
before the winter sets in, they should be given a 
heavy top dressing of grit. There is nothing that 
plants enjoy as much as this and it provides them 
with strength during the next year's growth. 


Concrete may not find favor with many garden 
lovers. It covers the surface so thoroughly that 
there is no place to introduce growth, but a little in- 
genuity and common sense removes this difficulty. 
Holes can be bored through the cement, and these 
should be large enough to allow the plants full 
scope to grow. 

Many people for step planting prefer a succes- 
sion of blossoming plants while others care for 
growth only. If the former plan is worked out, a 
charming early bloomer is the Alpine Anemone. 
Of these the Pulsatilla, or *'Pasque Flower," is ef- 
fective. It shows rich purple blossoms, which ris- 
ing above the green leaves with their downy, feath- 
ery collarette of green, develop into handsome 
seed heads, which are decorative. They nestle into 
the crevices of the rocks, sending forth their ex- 
quisite blossoms nine inches in diameter during 
the months of April and May. 

Variety is always delightful. For this deco- 
rative purpose why not use crocuses, *^The Her- 
alds of Spring." They thrive in any soil or situ- 
ation, but in order to obtain the best growth, they 
should be planted in rich, deep, sandy loam. One 
of the choicest kinds is the Baron von Bruno w. 


It is free flowering, putting forth large blossoms, 
dark blue in coloring. These can be mingled with 
a stripe variety such as La Majestueuse, which 
shows large, violet markings, exquisite in shading. 
The Giants, of which the Mont Blanc is a favorite, 
put out large, snow-white blossoms, forming an ef- 
fective foil for the dark blue flowers of the other 

In planting your steps do not forget to have 
plenty of bulbs introduced among the other plants. 
The graceful dwarf anemone seemingly fit into 
this early scheme, their delicate blossoms giving a 
touch of daintiness. For the best results these 
should be planted in the fall six inches apart and 
three inches in depth. Few bulbs exceed in love- 
liness the Blanda-Blue, Winter Wind Flower. 
This is matchless in coloring, originating in the 
hills of Greece, and has been naturalized in this 
country, where it takes kindly to the soil and pro- 
duces flowers of charming hue. A feature of this 
special plant is that it blossoms during the winter 
months as well as the early spring. You make no 
mistake if you place it in every development of 
steps in your garden. It naturalizes best in grassy 
places in warm soil, and it can be distinguished by 


its round, bulb-like roots. Should you, however, 
wish to have more than one variety, why not try 
the Bride, that puts forth a single white flower, or 
the single Fugens, ''Irish Anemone," which is 
semi-double, found in shades of scarlet, blue and 

Anyone can carry out their own idea as there 
are so many plants to draw from, each one of which 
is permissible for decorative effects. In our choos- 
ing let us not forget the Lily of the Valley. It is 
surely one of the most useful of our many spring 
flowers, pure white in coloring and delicately 
scented. For best development it should be planted 
in open ground, where it quickly spreads so that 
unless you wish masses of it, it will have to be sepa- 
rated almost every year. The Dutch Valley is an 
excellent kind to choose, as it sends forth so many 
flowering pits. This dainty little plant is a gen- 
eral favorite with everyone. Its sprays of droop- 
ing, white, wax-like, fragrant bells give a bit of 
color that is picturesque. 

If you are looking for evening bloom there is 
the ^nothera or evening Primrose; this has the 
advantage of blooming all through the summer 
months. There are so many kinds, each one so 


beautiful that it is a difficult matter to pick out the 
most decorative. Of these the Areiidsii is very- 
popular, showing, as it does, a profusion of lovely 
rose-colored flowers, and it is to be preferred to the 
Speciosa. Then there is the Pilgrimi with its glor- 
ious golden clusters that seem to light the garden 
during the twilight hour. 

In your planting do not forget the Acre, or 
golden moss. This is a creeping variety and espec- 
ially suitable for rock work. Its delicate growth 
makes it particularly appropriate for this use. 
The Vinca Minor can be mixed with this. This is 
evergreen, and excellent for covering or rockery, 
and can be combined with the Moss Pink, some- 
times known as creeping phlox. This latter is in 
bloom in May or June. It shows broad sheets of 
rosy pink, w^hite or lavender flowers, and an ever- 
green foliage. As it grows either in sun or shade, 
it is a very decorative plant to be used for step 

For the border can be used as a setting low, old- 
fashioned, hardy perennials, w^ich are particu- 
larly adapted for grouping. In their planting use 
good soil, let them be placed where there is a rea- 
sonable amount of sunshine, keep them free from 


weeds and give them an occasional surface culti- 

It is better to set these out in the fall, so that 
some of them will blossom during April and May. 
The late blossomers, however, can be saved until 
early spring, like Asters, and Heleniums. In mak- 
ing the selection, consideration should be given to 
those that grow in certain settings, as while some 
will flourish luxuriantly in ordinary garden loam, 
others are not dependable unless very rich soil is 
given to them. 

For the outer border why not use hardy Candy- 
tuft (Iberis Sempervirens), which sends forth a 
profusion of white flowers in April or May, show- 
ing a spreading foliage that is evergreen and very 
attractive. With this can be grown the Rock Cress 
or Arabis Albida, which from April to June sends 
out sheets of pure white, fragrant flowers. Back 
of this one can plant the Fleur-de-lis. They should 
be given a sunny position in any kind of soil. As 
they come in all sorts of colors, there is no trouble 
in getting them to carry out the scheme that you 
have in hand. The Silver King, which is a silvery 
white with lavender shading, can be placed with 
the Florantina, which is light lavender, and the 



Pallida Dalmatica, which is lavender bloom. If 
you wish to carry out this color scheme further, 
why not try the Purpurea, which with its rich, 
royal purple, will make during the season one of 
the handsomest displays possible for a setting to 
the low growth decoratively used in steps. 





We view our flower-plots at their best, gazing 
at them through the vine-clad entrance, as we 
glance down the gravel walk bordered on either 
side by masses of brilliant flowers. Involuntarily, 
our eyes wander along farther afield till we meet 
the background of trees clad in verdant foliage, a 
fitting setting for the picture laid out in patches 
of color, fitting into the canvas with a well-defined 
plan. We can but feel as we stand looking down 
on this paradise of flowers that we are thankful 
for the thought that first created gardens. 

When they came into existence it is hard to de- 
termine, for mention is found of flowers and the 
traditions of wonderful gardens, laid out long 
before man had chiseled the hieroglyphics de- 
picted on Egyptian tombs. The love of flowers is 
a heritage handed down from generation to genera- 

Homer, when speaking of Laertes, trying in vain 



to find consolation in his flowers, while mourning 
the departure of Telemachus, goes on to show us 
that great men turn to gardens to heal sorrow. 
Philosophy was taught by Epicurus surrounded by 
his beloved pupils among the flowers. 

From the early Greeks the Romans took their 
first lesson in floriculture. It was after their in- 
vasion of Brittany that they introduced certain 
flowers and fruits, like grapes, roses and violets, 
into English gardens. The art of gardening ad- 
vanced steadily, reaching its zenith in good Queen 
Elizabeth's time, when there were in England 
many pleasing gardens, formal and stiff, to be sure, 
but a fit setting for the architecture of thai; day. 

"While the garden designs abounded in beautiful 
walks and flowers, yet the entrance to the grounds 
formed as it were the keynote to it all. 

Has it ever occurred to you, as you stood hesitat- 
ing at the portals of the gardens, that these were 
suggestive of some well-thought-out plan, as like 
grim sentinels they stand guarding the flower treas- 
ures ? There is as much contrast in this part of 
the plan as there is in the design itself. Here we 
find a narrow, forbidding entrance, giving no 
glimpse of the flowers within ; again we come to a 


wide, welcoming one, beckoning, as it were, for us 
to pass through the portals and gaze with delight 
on the beauties hinted at beforehand and now dis- 
closed to the eye. 

For Colonial treatment there is nothing more 
dignified or stately than the square wooden posts, 
inclosing a locust inner one. They are built of 
white pine, one of the most lasting woods to be 
found in our country, and are Colonial or Geor- 
gian in design. Many of them are ornamental, 
topped with balls, urns, or torch devices and with 
elaborate hand-carving, so wonderful in its de- 
sign that architects copy them in their modified 
Colonial houses of to-day. This was the work of 
one of the most noted wood-carvers in our coun- 
try, Samuel Mclntyre, whose name is a household 
word to architects and landscape designers all over 
the country. 

There are two ways of treating the entrance. 
One of them is by adding an ornamental gate, cor- 
responding in type with that of the posts. The 
other is to leave the posts gateless ; while both are 
correct, yet the former way is more often used as it 
lends an air of privacy to the ground. It also helps 
out the effect planned by giving a touch of pictur- 


esqueness that would be otherwise lacking. A 
much too common mistake is the introduction of 
Southern architecture into Northern gateways ; the 
lines and details do not always conform with the 
type of the house. 

Most of these gates are hung by iron or brass 
hinges, but the earliest ones use the strap hinge, 
which carries out the Colonial idea. The difficulty 
with the strap hinge is that it is not always strong 
enough to hold the gates without sagging, and the 
wider the entrance the heavier the strain. While 
the design varies, yet rarely do we find one con- 
structed in the seventeenth century that is not sim- 
ple and with picket effects. The pickets have 
pointed tops and are sometimes irregularly spaced, 
while the brace often shows an artistic curve. 

Occasionally, we find the posts yoked, through a 
connecting arch. This is often latticed and if 
rightly designed adds to the ornamental effect. 
An old lantern is sometimes an attractive feature. 
The arch should be painted to match the color of 
the posts, a very good combination for this use is 
pure white lead, or zinc, combined with linseed oil. 
If you do not care to mix it yourself it can be 
bought ready for use. For the best effects, a thin 


coat should be used at first and it depends upon 
how easily it is covered as to how many coats to 
apply. If you wish to give a better finish, have an 
excess of turpentine over linseed oil in the last coat. 
There is more economy in covering it properly at 
first, as otherwise it will have to be re-painted each 

With the evolution of garden culture has come 
a similar change in the design and material used 
to form our entrances. On the large estates of to- 
day, rarely if ever, do we find the ornamental Co- 
lonial. It would be as much out of place as if the 
mistress of the house, affected silken brocades with 
wig and patches. 

The white paling fence, unless for simple cot- 
tages, has entirely gone out of style and in its place 
we find cement walls. Often these are topped with 
a coping of limestone. The gateposts, being formed 
over strong locust posts that have been driven 
firmly into the ground, are supported by brick or 
cement foundation. 

Where the mansion shows in exterior brick, often 
with trimmings of limestone, the same idea is 
worked out in the wall. In cases like this an orna- 
mental iron gate, hung on staples, supercedes the 


simple Colonial ones of former days. Occasionally, 
the name of the estate is interwoven in the orna- 
mentation, or sometimes it is carved on the stone 
entrance posts. 

Natural material is coming more and more to be 
used and we find a rubble wall, constructed from 
stone and boulders picked up on the grounds, left 
often rough, and again filled in with red cement to 
make it more stable. The rubble wall is generally 
topped with cement laid perfectly flat. The en- 
trance posts follow this same line of treatment and 
while they are often left hollow for several inches 
down, these are packed solidly inside with small 
rocks to keep them in place. The excavation is 
filled in with rich soil and bright blossoming plants 
introduced. This gives a bit of color scheme that 
is very effective as a foil for the cold gray of the 
stone. Vines are often planted at the foot of the 
posts, the turf being dug away for several inches, 
and rich loam introduced to better insure their 
growth. It depends entirely upon how heavy one 
wishes the covering to be as to the kind of vine 
planted. If it is the idea to hide it effectively from 
sight and produce massing of green, an entirely 
different planting should be made than if it was 



intended to have a delicate coloring of green that 
would only enhance the color of the background. 

Right combinations are very important in this 
line of work. It would be foolish to use wood- 
work combined with heavy stone or iron. It is 
sometimes in better form to have wide slabs of 
granite or cement defining several layers of brick. 
The height and width naturally depend upon what 
it intends to imply. 

Low piers of masonry capped with a pointed ef- 
fect should stand by themselves without any plant- 
ing, as the latter often disfigures architectural ef- 
fects. It is not always necessary that this feature 
of the exterior should be conspicuous, more par- 
ticularly if the posts are constructed of wood. 
Treat them to a light creosote stain, thus giving a 
picturesque background for the overlapping vines. 
Sometimes combinations work out well in produc- 
ing artistic results. With a rough stone pillar, it 
is sometimes in good taste to introduce gateways 
of oak, which while effective under certain condi- 
tions, are very bad under others. These are much 
more attractive the second year, when they have 
weathered to a picturesque pearly gray. This color 
harmonizes delightfully, not only with the walls but 


with the flowers and their foliage. An important 
thing that should not be forgotten is the use of 
wooden pegs and copper nails, neither of which are 
injured by rain. If you choose to use a wire fence, 
let the gate-post and gates correspond for it is far 
better than to combine materials inharmoniously. 
They are not only practical but light and in their 
construction there is a chance to work into the 
scheme ornamental designs. Do not finish this with 
a square box top, rather give it a bit of ornamenta- 
tion such as a ball or a lantern. There can be had 
to-day so many ornamental lanterns, constructed of 
wrought iron, that they can be purchased in almost 
any type desired. It is far better not to cover the 
posts with vines and thus conceal the beauty of the 
work. The most effective way would be to build 
up wire arches and plant rambler roses back of the 
posts for them to run on. 

The Sweet Briar, if one is looking for perfume, 
is desirable. They can be purchased in single and 
semi-double flowers, created through the develop- 
ing and crossing of the old-fashioned variety. 
Rambler roses are always in good taste. It is bet- 
ter to plant three or four kinds that show har- 
monious coloring. There is the Lord Penzance, a 


soft fawn, turning to lemon yellow in the center. 
This is particularly adaptable for covering arches 
as it is a strong grower and abundant blossomer. 
The Meg Merrilies fits into this color scheme, put- 
ting forth gorgeous crimson flowers during the six 
weeks of its flowering. Combine with these the 
Brenda, and you will find that this mixture lends 
a brightness that is very effective. Many people 
object to roses on account of their many enemies. 
One of the most common is the powdery mildew. 
This is easily distinguished by a powdery growth 
of white that is found on both leaves and shoots. 
Use sulphur very freely, and you will find it disap- 
pear. The stem cancer is a serious disease, and it 
is found on both the cane and the branches. In 
dealing with this the grower must not be afraid to 
use the pruning knife vigorously, so that the dis- 
eased parts can be thoroughly removed, in this way 
preventing spreading and the ruin of the vine. 
From the time of its planting the rambler needs 
constant attention, but it brings its own reward, in 
that there is no vine that can equal it in beauty. 
The advantage of having a variety of colors instead 
of one is readily seen, for it prevents a large mass 
of one individual color. 


There is a pleasure indescribable felt by lovers 
of plants when designing any feature of their 
grounds. This is particularly true with the gate 
and the planting. They must bear in mind, how- 
ever, the true purpose of gates and their proper 
use on country estates. It is designed as a means 
of ingress, and as such, should be suited to the type 
of mansion. Therefore, into its plan should be 
worked the atmosphere of the residence as well as 
the characteristics of the surrounding country. 
For instance, a wooden fence and gate-post would 
be entirely inappropriate if one were dealing with 
a beautiful summer estate where the house was to 
be built of brick. 

Compositions should not be carelessly used and 
it should be remembered that there is great dan- 
ger in our zeal for producing something unique, 
of going to the other extreme and giving an over- 
ornamental creation. One cannot be too particu- 
lar in making the entrance and the adjoining fence 
accord with the idea one is trying to bring out in 
the whole plan. 

The driveway is of fully as much importance as 
the entrance. It should be kept scrupulously neat 
and free from weeds. To have it at its best it 


should be thoroughly under-drained, and for this 
the open- joint drain tile is advisable. It should be 
laid under ground and connected, if possible, with 
the sewer. Properly attended to, this keeps the 
road-bed dry and in good condition. The bed itself 
should be dug down for several feet, a foundation 
of earth from six to ten inches should be laid, over 
which can be thrown a layer six inches thick of 
either broken limestone or chopped trap rock. 
Cover the whole with a screening of limestone and 
finish it with gravel. Have it rolled hard and you 
realize the advantage as the season ends. 

The drive should be sufficiently wide for car- 
riages to pass through without besmearing your 
gate-posts with mud and dust. One should realize 
that the driveway is in reality a foot-path en- 
larged, and should always be kept immaculate. 
The gate, if you wish to prevent its sagging, should 
open in the center. A two-part gate gives often a 
better effect than one long one. Nothing equals iron, 
which can be treated in so many different ways 
that there is little danger of repetition in design. 

The capping is as important as the post itself. 
Simple square box treatment is advisable in some 
cases. Balls fit into the scheme on some estates, 


while Colonial urns are in keeping with wooden 
posts and lantern effects belong to iron gateways. 
The latter, of course, are effective for lighting at 
night. Gras pipes can be laid under the roadway, 
connected with the ornamentation in such a way 
that they can be turned on from the house. 

In many entrances, side gates, similar to the 
main ones have been inserted, which relieve the 
main entrance from use by pedestrians. They can 
be so laid out as not to interfere with the use of 
the motor cars. They should be separated from 
the main driveway by a turf border and covered 
with gravel. 

Planting is very effective for this feature of the 
ground, and trees, that is if the right sort are 
chosen, are admirable, used in this connection. 
"White birches lend a picturesqueness that cannot 
be equaled, but they are short-lived. The elm with 
its graceful branches seems to fit into every land- 
scape scheme. Do not plant them too near the 
posts. If you do, their roots will reach out often 
causing upheaval and creating havoc. For best 
effects the trees should be used outside rather than 
inside the entrance. In the latter case they are 
too apt to cut off the view. 


Many people prefer a hedge and this can be 
planted either with or without a fence. Arbor- 
vitae is practical for such use as is the Buckthorn 
and the Berberis Thunbergii (Thunberg's Japan- 
ese Barberry). This is a Japanese hedge with 
round, drooping habit. It leaves out in a fine bril- 
liant green during the summer months and from 
autumn until December takes on a wonderful show- 
ing of color. During the winter months the 
branches, loaded with scarlet crimson berries, make 
an effective contrast with the white of the snow. 
Its value as a hedge is because it is impenetrable 
and thickly set with spines, never growing bare. 
The most popular shrub for hedge treatment is 
Privet-Ligustrum. It is very ornamental with a 
rich dark green foliage that is nearly evergreen 
and remains on the plant until late winter. It is 
a good grower under the most adverse circum- 
stances. In order to form the most effective hedge 
it should be planted from ten to twelve inches apart 
and pruned back during the first two seasons. 

The Ampelopsis Arborea woodbine is useful for 
entrances. It is a distinct variation from the other 
forms, making a spreading bush rather than a 
strong climber. Its leaves are dark green and com- 



paratively coarse, and its autumn coloring is su- 
perb. The Boston Ivy clings even to wood, its fine 
shoots cover walls and while it requires some cover- 
ing during the first two or three winters of its life, 
yet it pays. In the fall, nothing can be so gorgeous 
as the varied colored tints of its foliage. 

The Clematis Paniculata should never be forgot- 
ten. It is a rapid and vigorous climber and can 
be depended upon to clothe large spaces quickly. 
Originally, it was introduced from Japan and is 
allied to our native Virgin's Bower. The flowers 
are effective, borne in long panicles which are white 
and their fragrance is perceptible a long distance 
away. They open the latter part of August, stay- 
ing in bloom for nearly a month. Combined with 
this should be the Clematis Coccinea (Scarlet Cle- 
matis), whose showy bell-shape, brilliant scarlet 
flowers are produced in great profusion. 

The Wisteria is adapted to almost any purpose 
and can be used picturesquely on many types of 
entrances. The Wisteria Magnifica is admirable 
and resembles Frutescens, but it varies from it in 
that the clusters are larger and denser while the 
yellow lilac colored flowers have yellow spots. 

Among the other vines it is well to plant some 


that will give a touch of color during the dark, cold 
days of winter when the vines lie barren and bare, 
their leafless branches swaying in the wind. Why 
not use for that the Celastrus Scandens (Bitter 
Sweet or Wax Work). It is one of our native 
climbing plants and can be found in almost any 
part of the New England woods, a rapid grower, 
with attractive, light green foliage and yellow flow- 
ers, followed by bright orange red berries that are 
cheering in the fall and lead us to forget the shed- 
ding of the foliage by the other vines. 

In order to hide the base of the vine, ferns can 
be planted. It is better to use the hardy va- 
rieties rather than the more tender ones, although 
a combination of the two is always attractive. 
Take, for instance, the Adiantum Croweanum, 
which is one of the hardiest of the maiden hair 
species. This, like every other of its kind, should 
be well watered and fertilized, grown in a rich, 
open soil, with plenty of leaf mould. There is 
nothing difficult in their culture and they need ab- 
solutely no attention after planting. The Poly- 
podium Vulgare, which is evergreen, showing 
smooth, shiny fronds resembling the Boston fern, 
is another that is adapted for this purpose. 


With these can be combined the Comptonia, or 
Sweet Fern, a native plant with fern-like, dark 
green scented foliage, very useful for foliage 
massing on rocky, barren places, and thriving best 
in dry, sterile soil. There are many more varieties 
and it would be impossible to mention them all. 
They are, each and every one, suitable for adding 
to the beauty of private gardens and estates. 





John" BuerotjghS;, in his description of a gar- 
den, has told us that ' ' To love the birds, to appreci- 
ate their place in the landscape," is one of the most 
important things. It does much to bring happiness 
into our lives. In the forming of a perfect garden, 
many things are requisite and among them are 
birds, flowers, bees, and the flashing butterfly who 
darts joyously from flower to flower, a thing of 
beauty and perishable as the day. Should anyone 
doubt the truth of these assertions, let him seat 
himself in some retired spot during a beautiful day 
in the month of roses. He can then listen to the 
song of the birds, caroling as they sway on the 
branches of the trees above our heads, nestling at 
our feet, or hidden away deep down in the heart of 
the flower beds. Birds are everywhere, they flit in 
and out of the garden, sipping sweet nectar from 
the blossoming plants, and flaunting their bright 

colors when catching the sunshine as they swing by. 



God made nothing more interesting than birds 
and man should care for them, giving them a dis- 
tinctive place in his garden, realizing that through 
their industry they free the plants from harmful 
insects and slugs. The birds can be coaxed into 
anyone's garden, that is, if care is taken in proper 
planting, giving to the plots trees and plants that 
they love. Under the rose bushes place a bath, 
where they can come and preen their plumage, but 
if possible have it placed beyond the reach of in- 
truding cats. 

When the custom of providing drinking cups to 
quench the thirst of our native birds first came 
into fashion, it is hard to determine. Perchance^ 
it was in the early days when in 1621, the colonists 
built rail fences, to enclose their separate lots. 
Over these they trained the wild morning glory and 
sweet-scented honeysuckle, the perfume of which 
doubtless carried them back to the beautiful Eng- 
lish gardens that still existed in their native land. 

Doubtless, during the life of William Penn, 
when he encouraged the laying out of old English 
gardens, he included in the design a planting to at- 
tract bird life. This was still further encouraged 
when the first botanical garden came into existence 


in 1728 through the thought of Bertram Bartran^ 
of Philadelphia. He was a man who had traveled 
much and was thoroughly versed in the art of flori- 
culture. In his garden he planted rare and prac- 
tical seeds partly for the mere joy of carrying out 
his own whims. This garden, like many others, was 
individual in its planting, a quality that lent to it 
an additional charm. 

During the early seventeenth century there were 
imported into seaport towns principally at Salem^ 
Massachusetts, unique bird baths. They came 
packed in among the cargo that was stowed away 
in the holds of the slow sailing ships that plied con- 
tinuously between Singapore and the New England 
shores. Many of these were the result of orders 
given by the ship owners who wanted to set them in 
their posy beds, laid out at the rear of their 
stately homes. Rare were these shells with their 
fluted framework, and hard to find, yet so spacious 
that a whole colony of feathered songsters could 
hold concourse within their pearly depths. 

Underneath the shade of the drooping lilac, they 
peered out at us from the time the melting of the 
snow released the snow drops from their icy cover, 
thus allowing them to lift up their pure white heads 


as if in rejoicing to be free, to be followed later on 
by the gay little crocuses, clad in their gowns of 
many hues. Few of these baths are still in exist- 
ence. We come across them occasionally, however, 
in old-fashioned gardens where they are treasured 
for sentiment's sake. 

Just as the rustic bird houses, constructed of 
weathered boards, and with floor covering of pow- 
dered sawdust or ground cork, have become a neces- 
sity in the twentieth-century garden, tempting the 
summer sojourners to rest their weary wings; so 
we must strive to create a homelike atmosphere so 
attractive to the little songsters that they will de- 
light in revelling among the many flowers that are 
planted here. A barren waste of land has no pleas- 
use for them, neither has a garden shorn of their 
favorite plants. 

There is no need of being deterred from using a 
feature such as this. A bird bath need not be expen- 
sive, just a simple box, zinc-lined and painted to 
correspond with the surroundings. The birds are 
not fussy as to the exterior of their outdoor bath- 
room ; all they wish is comfort and a cooling drink 
during the hot summer days, when the dew has 
faded from the grass, and the sun hangs high in the 


heavens. It is then that all nature is panting from 
excessive heat. 

A simple zinc pan, large and wide enough, filled 
with fresh water daily, is as satisfactory to them, 
as a marble pool standing in the heart of the gar- 
den and surromided by a bed of brilliant flowers. 
Place this pan in the heart of a grassy knoll, at 
the edge of the garden proper and watch results. 
You will not have long to wait before softly trip- 
ping through the grass or dropping from their 
leafy covert, one by one, they show their gratitude 
by revelling in the bath thus placed for their use. 

The most common type, if you wish to buy a bird 
bath, is the cement one. It can be modeled in any 
shape and to follow any line of treatment that you 
prefer. The simple, plain, low-lying ones are suit- 
able for placing under the shadowy bush or tree. 
Hand carving would be as much out of place on a 
bath such as this, as if one used an expensive silver 
bowl for their benefit. To be sure a little orna- 
mentation, simply worked out, makes them more 
artistic. This can be accomplished through proper 
planting. A delicate fern unfolding its fronds and 
drooping imtil it almost touches the water is ap- 
propriate, as is a low-lying pine that adds a bit of 


shade which is truly appreciated by your little visi- 
tors who perch on the curb, after shaking off the 
dust from their wings in the water below, and pour 
out their gratitude in a melody of song. 

For ornament why not use a cement bath that is 
shaped like a large vase. It makes an interesting 
feature in your twentieth-century garden, and 
gives a chance to depict a favorite flower from 
which the garden takes its name. 

Rising stately and dignified from their floral bed, 
showing wonderful and delicate carving, are mar- 
ble baths exquisitely shaped and resting on a shaft 
of the same material. These are fitting for an Ital- 
ian or a formal garden. They seem to blend in with 
an elaborate architectural scheme such as we find 
in the planning for the decoration of a large area. 

There is no particular place where they seem- 
ingly do not fit in. They are effective used as a 
central figure and surromided with a circle of well- 
chosen blossoming plants and they harmonize in the 
landscape scheme even if used apart from the main 
gardens or designed to occupy a niche in the wall. 
Here they are just as enjoyable as if they stood 
prominently forth, the main axis around which the 
rest of the garden revolves. 



They can be made much more picturesque if one 
trains over their side a delicate vine whose ten- 
drils cling to the foundation and bring out the 
color effectively. Plant for the birds' enjoyment 
and combine with this feature decorative beds, 
using not the strong colors, but the delicate, dainty, 
pink, blue, white and lavender, of the many va- 
rieties that are suitable for this purpose. 

Do not let the base of your expensive bird bath 
rest on the earth, rather place under it a pedestal 
of marble, granite, or cement. It need not be con- 
spicuous, a growth of turf, the planting of an ivy 
or some other vine, will add much to its attractive- 
ness, making an artistic foundation for it. 

Whoever lays out his garden plot with a thought 
of thorough enjoyment, he who looks forward to 
sitting under the vine, will take special thought of 
the birds. He will endeavor even if he is an ama- 
teur not to make an ugly muddle in his planting, 
but aim for picturesque garden vistas, and have his 
flowers properly balanced so they will show har- 
monious massing of colors. One should be as care- 
ful not to give sunloving plants a shady place, as 
to put the shy little flowers in the glaring sun- 


It is a necessity if you are a bird lover, or if 
you wish to rid your plants of insects and your 
grounds of worms, to attract the birds. This can 
be accomplished by giving them not only proper 
planting but the right place where they may enjoy 
their daily bath. If you wish the best results, seek 
shade rather than sunshine. Our little friends pre- 
fer shelter to warmth, so cater to their taste in 
the placing of their drinking pool. 

It is rather important that you seek a spot, just 
near enough to the grounds to be companionable, 
there to place a mulberry tree. There is no fruit 
that is more to their mind than this and it will be 
a source of delight to watch the shyest birds reward 
you by flaunting their colors before you as they 
flit in and out, feeding off the berries so temptingly 
displayed for their exclusive use. 

It is a mistake to look upon the robin as com- 
mon and a pest. This fact has been firmly fixed 
in our minds through his thieving qualities. Wlien 
you consider that he has been known to devour as 
many as seventy worms a day, and multiply that 
by the voracity of his mate and his children, you 
will then commence to realize what a benefit he is 
to your garden. Try and cajole him into being 


a friend, and entice him to nest in the heart of your 
flower patch. Listen to his song ; there is a mellow 
quality to his voice and he can put more expres- 
sion into his music than any other bird. There 
is a flash of color and a burst of sweet melody, 
listen — there is a scarlet tanager, singing love songs 
to his mate. He is a veritable bird of Paradise 
and once sported fearlessly among our trees, but 
has now grown shy through being used as a target 
for the sportsman's gun. Cultivate him by all 
means. Toll him into your garden. 

Darting in and out of the garden one finds the 
humming bird, so tiny that he measures only from 
three and a half to three and three-quarters inches, 
the smallest bird in our country. There is a glint 
of color as he dashes fearlessly from flower to 
flower, his brilliant metallic throat and breast 
sparkling in the sunlight like a precious gem. The 
trumpet flowers with their deep cup-shape blos- 
soms are his special delight, although he never 
scorns the sweet-scented flowers that he finds on 
every side. For a moment he poises in the air mo- 
tionless, sighting his flower, then winging his flight, 
he drains the nectar, uttering a shrill little squeak 
of delight, as he spies some especially fat aphides 


on the garden foliage. These he shoots off like a 
streak of lightning rapidly searching for more 

How to attract the birds is a question that all 
bird lovers are seeking to answer. It is such a 
simple matter that you do not have to look far 
afield to obtain what you wish. There are many 
fruit-growing shrubs each one of which is suitable 
for his majesty's needs. These should be planted 
somewhere in the garden. If you prefer them sur- 
rounding the bird bath, you will have more chance 
for bird study, but they will come without that if 
you give them a chance and plenty of edible ber- 
ries all the year round. The red berried elder is 
one of their favorites, as is the Canadensis or com- 
mon elder, which flowers in June, and shows red- 
dish purple berries during the autumn ; then there 
is the Arbutifolia or red chokeberry. This is a 
native dwarf shrub, which is particularly tempting 
to the feathered tribe. When planning for this 
feature, one should remember that these bird-at- 
tracting shrubs should not be planted with only 
one idea in view. They should be made to form 
a part of the decorative plan, and the situation 
chosen should be among flowers that would bring 



out its artistic value, far more than if they were 
grouped in a mass. One is apt, in their enthusiasm 
in arranging their garden for the birds' benefit, to 
forget that attractive color schemes must be 
^Yorked out, otherwise it will be a heterogeneoifs 
mass that will be an eye-sore rather than a pleas- 

There is very little choice as to what kind of 
flowers to mix with the shrubs. Take it all in all, 
the perennials stand first. The reason for this is 
that they are more suitable for this purpose than 
annuals, which have to be re-planted every year. 
Like the shrubs the peremiials die down in the fall 
and re-appear when the breath of spring sweeps 
over the land, in greater profusion and showing 
added vigor through having conserved their 
strength by resting during the winter months. 

You are very foolish if you have taken no 
thought for the future life of your shrub or peren- 
nial. Once planted they do not take care of them- 
selves and if neglected it only means the survival 
of the fittest. Diifferent species require different 
treatment, and a great many kinds need to be sub- 
divided every two or three years. The scarlet and 
crimson Phlox, Spirea, and many other varieties 


should never be left longer than two years, they; 
should then be carefully gone over and an experi- 
enced hand should determine how much should be 
left and what removed. If you have planting of 
Iris, Shaster daisies, and Veronicas, they can read- 
ily wait until the third year. 

The ground is of just as much importance as the 
planting. Just because you wish to grow flowers 
and shrubs, you must remember that they must 
have food to live on, that this food must be prop- 
erly prepared and contain plenty of nourishment, 
otherwise you will have spent money and time for 
naught. First of all comes fertilizing. Doubtless, 
in some part of the ground you can find a corner 
that will be the proper place for the compost heap. 
In its selection, it is better that it should be con- 
cealed by shrubs or trellis, vine covered. It would 
be a blot in the landscape if you treated it other- 

Every time you rake over the lawn or weed the 
garden, throw into a large basket the refuse and let 
it form part of the compost heap. The f omidation 
for this should be plenty of manure and this, to 
be at its best, must be well rotted and mixed in with 
other material to lighten and bring about better 


results. You will be surprised, that is if you have 
never tried it, to see how quickly it grows. Almost 
before you know it you have enough to use in the 
garden next year. No matter how rich it is, a 
liberal amount of coarse bone meal added will pay 
in the end. 

Your fertilizer ready, as early as possible in the 
spring dig your ground to the depth of eighteen or 
more inches. It is better if the earth is pulverized ; 
some people go so far as to sift it. Next put in your 
fertilizer, mixing it with the earth previously re- 
moved. Give it time to settle before planting and 
you will never be dissatisfied with results. 

Opinions vary as to proper time for planting 
perennials. Many people feel that the spring is 
the safest. It is foolish to follow this plan unless 
it can be accomplished as soon as the frost is well 
out of the ground. Many of them are likely to die. 
Therefore, if you pot them in the fall, and winter 
them under glass, the result will be much more sat- 
isfactory. It is simply the working out of the gar- 
den lover's idea as to what is correct and what in- 
correct as to the time of planting. 

Many kinds are better massed. This applies to 
the Sweet William, the Hollyhock, Delphinium, 


and other varieties, that seemingly belong to the 
same family. The hardy Asters, which are late 
flowering, are invaluable for massing. They burst 
into blossom at a period when the early frosts have 
killed the more tender plants, making their bright 
hues a dominant feature in the garden. It is bet- 
ter to shade colors than to plant one variety. For 
September and October blossoming why not use the 
Abendrote or Evening Glow ? It has a bright rosy 
red flower and is a very free bloomer. Mix with 
that the Glory of Colwall, which is ageratum blue, 
showing double flowers, grown on stout, erect 
stems. The pink of the blossom contrasts admir- 
ably with the rosy red. The White Queen will mix 
with these two colors very effectively. This is a 
pure, splendid white and comes into blossom at the 
same season of the year. 

A very interesting way of treating the defining 
Ime of the garden proper is by a low hedge. Many 
of these are berry bearing, thus working into the 
bird scheme. The Hawthorn Oxyacantha is well 
suited for this purpose. It is used in England for 
hedges and during the time of its blossoming shows 
a pure white, sweet-scented flower followed by a 
scarlet fruit. The Berberis is excellent for hedg- 


ing. It blooms in the summer and is succeeded by 
a bright colored fruit that lasts into the winter. 

Once interested in this feature of garden cul- 
ture, by careful study one will realize what an in- 
exhaustible theme it becomes. Color shades in 
berries often help out landscape effects in winter, 
therefore it is best not to plant promiscuously. 




The ever-changing tide of fashion brings in its 
wake a constant development of new and original 
ideas in the furnishing of our garden plots. Flow- 
ers have been with us ever since the first settlement 
of our country and so has a love for life in the 
open. This is an inheritance that has deepened 
with the passing years. So rapidly has this de- 
veloped that to-day it demands our gardens as liv- 
ing rooms. It is this aspect of garden life that de- 
velops new and unusual features in equipment. 

While we may flatter ourselves that we as gar- 
den lovers have originated this idea, yet it is of 
ancient origin. History relates that in the gar- 
dens of the early Romans and Greeks, garden seats 
were found. With the changing of styles in floral- 
culture the ornate came into existence, much used 
during the Italian Renaissance. Reproductions of 
their ideas are found in replica in many of the for- 
mal gardens of the twentieth century. 



Logs, carelessly thrown on the ground, may have 
been the first seats used by our garden ances^ 
tors. Later on with the development of the 
one-path posy bed, seats were hollowed out of old 
trees. They formed a picturesque bit, clothed dur- 
ing the summer months in their garments of green, 
for trailing vines were encouraged to run rampant 
over their sides. These with the green arbor or 
pergola and the vine-clad summer house were the 
three styles of seats favored by the Colonial dames. 

Styles and usage of furniture in this special way 
are as clearly defined as in interior decoration. 
The modern garden equipped with English, Amer- 
ican or Italian furniture, gives a pleasing variety. 
The principal materials necessary for manufacture 
are stone, marble, terra cotta or wood. Of these, 
the latter suggests less expense, while the former 
can be purchased at any sum you wish. 

Stone or marble are absolutely necessary in 
formal or Italian gardens, as they provide a proper 
medium for expression that nothing else would 
satisfy. Look at the gleam of the white marble 
shown up by its background of green trees and see 
what a charm it has in the furnishing of your gar- 
den plot. Take it all in all, it is the only right 


setting for an elaborate garden, partly on account 
of its being a descendant of the Italian Renaissance 
period which makes it desirable in designs that 
follow out the character of that period. Rarely, if 
ever, do we find this simple in form, but rather 
elaborately carved with representations of ani- 
mals or figures. As an ornamental feature, it 
cannot be excelled, but as a garden seat it is not 
practical, being cold and hard to sit upon. Prop- 
erly speaking, it should be placed at the head of a 
walk or topping the garden steps. This is on ac- 
count of its decorative character and the necessity 
of making it fit into the floral scheme. The price 
is prohibitive except to the rich, although it varies 
with the elaboration of the carving. 

Terra cotta, while not as often used, has its ad- 
vantages. It can be moulded readily into any form 
desired. While it is not always suitable, yet its 
warmth of color, which is either buff or red, makes 
it admirable when one desires to bring out certain 
effects in the planting of beds. It is, perhaps, the 
least used of any of the materials. A seat four feet 
in length can be purchased for from forty dollars 

Concrete seats are the kind that are most com- 


monly used for formal and informal gardens. We 
should remember, however, that we must not mix 
formal and informal furniture promiscuously, 
otherwise the result will be disastrous. One should 
bear in mind in treating this subject that formal 
pieces resemble well-bred people. They fit suit- 
ably into any place in their surroundings. It is 
far different, however, with informal pieces which 
are entirely wrong and out of place in formal set- 
tings. This fact applies to concrete which is suit- 
able for almost any occasion for it possesses almost 
endless possibilities as far as form is concerned. 
Rightly mixed, it can be moulded into almost any 
shape that you desire, which accounts for the fact 
that in its designs many of the elaborate garden 
seats are copied. This makes it popular and con- 
stantly in demand, on account of its less cost. To 
all intents and purposes, it is quite as durable as 
stone or marble. It has still another advantage, 
in that its neutral gray tint harmonizes pictur- 
esquely with almost any setting of shrubbery or 

The least expensive of any of the materials that 
is used for this purpose is wood. It has this ad- 
vantage, that it can be formed in such a great va- 


riety of shapes that there is always found some 
piece that is suitable for every taste and occasion. 
If you contrast it with marble or stone, you will 
realize that it has the advantage of being lighter 
in weight, and capable of being carried around 
from place to place with little or no trouble. Take 
it all in all, the best place for it to be at home in is 
the informal garden. 

The kind of garden that most of us live in and 
enjoy intimately is the plot where wooden settles 
and chairs are used. Care should be taken, how- 
ever, in the selection of material in order that it 
may have lasting qualities. One reason for its use 
is that unlike marble and stone it is not cold to sit 
upon, and is really comfortable. The best kind of 
wood, if you can afford it, is teakwood, which lasts 
for centuries. It is the most expensive, particu- 
larly the antique pieces. Those of to-day are shod- 
ily put together and cannot resist weathering as do 
the century-old ones. 

Many people prefer pine on account of less cost. 
This is all right, provided great care is taken to 
keep it well covered with paint of the glossy kind. 
The advantage of this over the other is that it can 
be readily wiped clean before using. Anyone who 


is a garden lover will appreciate this fact, for no 
matter how carefully placed, the seats will accum- 
ulate a reasonable amount of leaves and dirt. 

Plain settles and benches which belong to the in- 
formal type can be placed anywheres, according to 
inclination. These need not, of necessity, be made 
of plain wooden strips, but can be varied by making 
them rustic in design. Use for this purpose limbs 
of the same size without removing the bark. They 
require so little work in putting them together that 
a village carpenter can accomplish this task, or if 
you are a genius you can do it yourself. An objec- 
tion which many people offer is that they need re- 
pairing often, or replacing. Considering the cost, 
this is not a serious objection. 

For a simple Colonial cottage, such pieces as 
these would be appropriate for use in your garden 
and you can add a tea table and a few chairs sug- 
gestive of afternoon tea, the position being deter- 
mined by views, for the placing is of as much 
importance as the piece itself. If possible, have 
low-growing trees droop over it to give the re- 
quired shade. 

For the elegant mansion, the home of the 
wealthy, more elaborate pieces are a necessity. One 


thing should not be forgotten in their choice and 
that is they should be heavy enough to stay on 
the ground and resist the strong northeast winds 
that during a heavy rain sweep over your flower- 

Flagstone sometimes gives a variety as well as 
limestone, but there are several other materials 
that give a pleasing color and texture, such as the 
pink granite and the red, black and green slates. 
Of these, the red is most effective when streaked 
with another color. Do not choose the Quincy 
granite ; the texture is cold in appearance and the 
weather never softens the color. 

A fault that must not be overlooked is to 
build your seats too high, thirteen inches being 
the proper height. The back should always be 
taken into consideration and made tall enough to 
support the head so that you will be comfortable 
when you come to view your garden plot. 

It is not always possible to have this piece of 
furniture placed under the shade of a tree or shrub- 
^ bery. This necessitates the planning of a summer 
house, arbor or pergola. Over these, vines can be 
trained, so that in reality it is much more pictur- 
esque than if you had used simply the green shade. 


Chairs can be used for this same purpose, in fact, 
they are very good as they provide a variation of 
the general theme. They are particularly advis- 
able if it is a backyard garden where a settle might 
prove too overpowering. Like the garden seat, 
they can be made of wood. Cedar and locust are 
preferable if you wish pretty rustic effects. Cyp- 
ress also is lasting, and if you prefer to give it a 
coat of paint, it will do service for many years. 

For rustic chairs or seats, there is another idea 
for shelter that is practical. It is to roof it over 
and shingle the board. It has advantages over 
anything else in that it affords protection from the 
summer sun and acts as a windbreak on cold days, 
besides doing away with the dropping of insects 
from the leafy tangle of an arbor. No matter how 
charming a garden may be in its floral arrange- 
ment, it requires additions and accessories to dis- 
play to the best advantage its worth. Just as a 
house is cozy or barren according to the style of 
furniture employed, so a garden is beautiful in 
proportion to the type of ornaments used. 

Probably the coming into style of the formal 
Italian type of garden has done much to develop 
this feature. Until late years, scant heed was paid 


to fitness, and in consequence much of the old-time 
charm found in the Colonial garden was lost. 

When planning for your garden seat or chair, 
take into consideration the planting. In your 
choice of colors you should vary the scheme to fit 
in with the particular seat. A white requires dif- 
ferent surroundings from a gray or a rustic type. 
Wrong coloring brings about inharmonious effects 
and they should be carefully considered in the mak- 
ing a perfect whole. Another thing should be 
thought out and that is as to whether there is a 
shade provided by the overhanging limbs of a tree 
or by the trailing of vines. 

Vines are always interesting. You can use them 
in a mass, showing one general effect, or you can 
combine them. Nothing is so pretty in the early 
spring as the Wisterias, on account of their being 
not only hardy, but tall growers. Many people 
claim the best varieties are those grafted on to 
specially selected stock, thus making them sure 
bloomers. The soil should also be taken into con- 
sideration, for while they thrive in light, sandy 
conditions, yet deep, rich earth promotes stronger 
growth. The Magnifica is, perhaps, as vigorous as 
any. It is such a rapid grower that it shoots up 


from thirty to forty feet in a season. It blossoms 
rather later than some varieties which show soft, 
lavender blue blooms. Why not mix this with the 
Chinese white, whose pure white flowers show long, 
drooping clusters. 

If you are looking for foliage in the early fall, 
the Vitis Henryana can be used. Its leaves are 
decorative in effect, being a velvety green with 
veins of silvery white. It is of Chinese origin and 
in the fall the foliage turns to a beautiful red. For 
July and August blossoming, there is the Big- 
nonia Grandiflora or Mammoth-flowered Trumpet 
creeper. This is a splendid climbing vine, per- 
fectly hardy, giving a growth of from eight to ten 
feet in a season. Its flowers, which are shown dur- 
ing July and August, are orange red and trumpet- 
shaped, following as they do after the Wisteria 
has faded, they bring about an entirely different 
color scheme. This makes it practical for one to 
plant a succession of bloom, making each set of 
flowers correspond with the coloring of the vines. 

A very pleasing contrast can be brought out by 
combining the magnolia-scented Wliite Moon 
Flower, with a beautiful Blue Dawn. The former 
is a summer climber, growing from fifteen to 


twenty feet in height. It makes a beautiful shade 
for trellises and bears in the season a profusion of 
large trumpet-shape snow-white flowers that are 
richly scented and very beautiful. There is also 
a heavenly blue that combines artistically with the 
white. One feature of this vine is its thick, over- 
lapping, glossy foliage, and its nightly scores of 
immense silky blooms which are of rare fragrance. 
By actual count a strong vine will bear from one 
to three thousand blossoms in a season. There has 
within the last few years been discovered a new 
variety that opens early in the morning and re- 
mains so nearly all day. 

The beautiful blue of the Paradise Flower is 
used when one wishes for this color in decorations. 
The clusters are large, showing from twenty to 
thirty at a time and it blossoms continually from 
the time it becomes established until frost. 

For a rustic seat, why not try the wild grape or 
Crimson Glory vine*? It is so strong and hardy, 
notable for its heavy foliage which makes a splen- 
did shade and in the fall is a mass of rich crimson. 
We have grown to think of morning glories as a 
pretty, small flower that grew in our grandmother's 
garden. Many of us have not realized that they 


have been developed until now they show gigantic 
bloom as large as the moon flowers. They have 
wonderful coloring, marking and variations of in- 
describable beauty. As a flowering vine they can- 
not be surpassed, the flowers being borne by the 
hundreds and of enormous size, measuring often 
five and six inches across. Many show a rich com- 
bination of shading blended together in an en- 
chanting way, being spotted, penciled, mottled, and 
variegated in every conceivable manner. 

If your garden seat is low, let your planting fol- 
low the same line, but if it is high and conspicuous, 
it can be accentuated by tall plants. Hollyhocks, 
with their stately stalks, are charming for this par- 
ticular use. There is the hardy peremiial with 
the foliage dwarf and compact. This is found in 
the Heuchera, which is easily grown from seed and 
reaches a height of eighteen inches. Of this va- 
riety, the Sanguinea is admirable, being the finest 
of all the red varieties, the flowers taking on the 
shade of coral red. If you wish, instead of a solid 
color, to make a combination, why not use the San- 
guinea, Sutton's Hybrid, which is found in pretty 
shades of pink, as well as creamy white, rose and 
crimson. These blossom in July and August, their 


stately, well-filled cups, giving a distinction to the 
seat that could not well be missed. 

Fleur-de-lis, sometimes spoken of as the Fairy 
Queen's home, is always satisfactory and never 
fails to bloom. No flower can surpass this in deli- 
cacy of texture and coloring, and it rivals even the 
orchids of the tropics in its beauty. They thrive 
in almost every soil, being one of the easiest plants 
to cultivate, although a fairly rich earth will ma- 
terially increase the number and size of the bloom. 
In planting them, nearly cover the rhizomes. The 
earliest flowering ones are the Germans, which 
come into bloom the latter part of May or early in 
June. These are followed by the Japan variety 
which follow closely on the former and stay in blos- 
som for a month. Of the German, the Lohengrin 
is the most vigorous, deep violet mauve in coloring, 
and the flowers are nearly five inches deep, showing 
petals two inches across. In direct contrast is the 
Princess Victoria Louise, light sulphur yellow or 
rich violet red, edged with crimson, both of which 
varieties are very handsome. 

The double Iris is particularly beautiful for 
some situations. There is the Antelope with white 
ground flaked with purple; the Diana, reddish 


purple flaked with white ; the Mount Fell, grayish 
white, veined with blue and showing yellow center ; 
and the Victor, white veined, violet blue with pur- 
ple center. Each one of these is well worthy of 

Nothing is so beautiful as roses, be they climb- 
ing or dwarf. For the former, why not use the 
Climbing Jules Graveraux, which is one of the 
most valuable, ever-blooming climbers ever intro- 
duced. The value of this is that the blooms are 
immense in size, being as large or larger than any 
other rose. It even exceeds the J. B. Clark. These 
roses are perfectly double, white, tinged with blush 
pink, with a yellow base. In freedom of bloom, it 
is superior to either Mrs. Peary or Climbing Me- 
teor. Then there is the Empress of China or 
Appleblossom rose, a strong rampant grower, and 
a very free bloomer. The buds are pointed, being 
soft red, turning to lighter. It blooms from May 
to December in the open ground. 

Tea Roses, distinguished by the delicate tea frag- 
rance, are absolutely ever-blooming. They are 
carried through the winter even in the northern 
states with careful protection. The most satis- 
factory method is the banking up with soil. Of 


these, the yellow Souvenir de Pierre Netting is the 
most beautiful. It has been introduced by one of 
the foremost firms of France and is not exceeded 
by any rose sent out from that country. The blos- 
soms are large, well filled, and open easily. The 
buds are beautiful and elongated. When fully 
bloomed, they show an apricot yellow, tinged with 
golden and mixed with orange yellow. One charm 
of these flowers is that the edge of the petal shades 
to a beautiful carmine rose. The open flower is full 
and double, it being an extremely free blossomer. 
One of the latest introductions is the Lady Hil- 
lingdon, the color being beyond description. Apri- 
cot yellow, shaded to orange on the outer edge of 
the petal, and becoming deeper and more intense 
as it reaches the center of the bloom. The buds are 
produced on long, strong, wiry stems, which are 
placed well above the foliage, thus giving it a slen- 
der and graceful effect. It is valuable in both the 
amateur and professional growers* gardens. It 
would be impossible to emunerate the different 
kinds that are used for this purpose. 





With the revival of old-time garden features 
that has been brought about through interest in 
floriculture, fascinating specialties have been 
evolved. This is particularly true of the garden 
pool which lends itself to almost every kind of 
setting. It is no new idea, this introduction of 
pools into even small gardens. 

The ancient Egyptians had great reverence for 
pools and we read of their interest in bringing into 
life the sacred Lotus, giving it a prominent place 
in their gardens. This may be better known to 
moderns as '*the rose lily." In the early days it 
was used for religious purposes and was a promi- 
nent feature in their festivals. It was also used 
ornamentally for feasts where the walls were 
decorated with the beautiful blossoms that were 
repeated in the centerpiece for the elaborately- 
spread table. Not content with this use for decora- 



tive purposes, it was made in forms of garlands 
that were thrown over the shoulders of the as- 
sembled guests while wreaths of the same flower 
crowned their brows, great care being taken that a 
bud or cluster of blossoms was placed in the center 
of the forehead. 

Ever since that period, we read of the constant 
introduction of water into gardens of every clime. 
While pools were not commonly used during the 
Colonial period, they have to-day, with the coming 
in of the formal and Italian gardens, grown to be 
one of the most interesting features. The form and 
the immediate surroundings have been carefully 
thought out and depend upon the type and the 
shape of the whole plan. 

When the mercury registers at ninety and the 
whirling dust rises in clouds, parching one's throat 
as it settles like a dingy pall on sun-burned grass 
and drooping foliage, it is a pleasure to come sud- 
denly upon a pond where over-hanging plants cast 
lengthened shadows far over the surface. They 
shelter the waxen lily cups that gleam like pearls 
against a background of dark green pods — a per- 
petual joy and delight to the eye. 

There is no doubt but water, be it large or small 


in area, holds a charm for us all. How much more 
if it is inhabited and made beautiful through the 
use of aquatic plants and fish. These scattered ap- 
parently carelessly over the surface of the water 
add much to its picturesqueness. This is particu- 
larly true during the season of bloom when we find 
varied colored cups, resting on saucers of green, 
lifting their heads above the surface as if in delight 
with their surroundings. 

Surely when you view a pond such as this you 
will find a double delight in watching a flutter of 
wings, a hopping about on the plants and glad dip- 
ping of little bills and uplifting of heads. These 
are the birds that form a part of garden life and 
who are attracted here by the flowers and the 
chance of a bath. Splashing and sparkling in the 
sunlight, they dive into the water below, drying 
themselves on the large pads that float artistically 
on the surface. Over yonder is a large gray cat 
bird calling to its mate. We can but note the fine 
proportion, the poise of the black head and the 
beauty of the satin gray coat which is pruned by 
the hour. There is the Indigo Bird, a delightful 
symphony of blue and cinnamon red. He sits 
swinging on a lily while his musical note comes to 


our listening ears. The Ruby Throated Humming 
Bird swings noiselessly over the pond, dipping his 
long beak here and there to gather honey from the 
wide-open flowers. 

It depends upon the size of the pool, the shape 
and the finish as to the planting. It is a great mis- 
take to have it so thickly overspread with leaves 
that no water is visible. A good rule to be ob- 
served is two-thirds water and one-third lilies. 
This gives a chance to watch the gold fish darting 
in and out for food. For a small beginning of a 
water garden, why not try a pocket in the rock? 
It is a very easy matter to arrange for lilies in a 
case like this. All you have to do is to cement the 
hollow, put in your loam and plant one or two 
roots. It is these diminutive water gardens that 
attract the birds more than the large pools, and 
they form a charming vista in the garden scheme. 
Little pockets of earth can be made to surround 
them, and here we can plant rock-loving plants that 
will give a touch of picturesqueness to this cunning 
little scheme. 

The shape of the garden determines that of the 
pool. A square garden demands square treatment 
in the layout of your design. A round garden, to 


be correct, should have a circular formation for 
the planting of your lilies. Then, too, the treat- 
ment of the planting should be determined by the 
formality or informality of the plan. Great care 
should be taken that they are not aimlessly placed 
but form a part of the design. Any attempt to di- 
gress from this rule is fatal for correct composi- 

Great attention should be paid to the margin. 
It should not be stiff and formal ; it should rather 
be broken here and there, so that there will be 
open spaces showing between. Copy nature in this 
treatment and you will not go far astray. 

In order to make this pool successful, one thing 
should never be forgotten and that is that you are 
dealing with sun-loving plants to whom shadow is 
objectionable. There is another reason why the 
sunshine should fall unobstructed on the pond and 
that is that it shows reflections that are effective, 
and bring cheer to your garden plot. 

Many people consider that stagnant pools should 
not exist, as they are mosquito breeders. They do 
not realize that the stocking of pools with both fish 
and plants, carefully carried out so that they are 
properly balanced, results in the water never being 


putrid but remaining fresh and sweet, making a 
delightful water garden that is healthful and not 
malaria breeding. 

There are two essentials if you wish your idea 
to be successful; first, that the bottom be water- 
tight and second, that it be proof against frost. 
While these two things are easy to accomplish, yet 
many people fail in them. Cement is the only 
proper material to be used for foundation. Some 
people have an idea that puddled clay is cheaper. 
It may be if properly handled, but great care has 
to be taken that it is thoroughly puddled or it melts 
away and your work has been for naught. 

Cement is the most reliable material if correctly 
applied. Before putting it on, the pool should be 
dug out to the proper depth and size. It should 
then be well packed for several inches with broken 
stone. Over this should be put Portland cement, 
using one part of the former to three of sand. Some 
people cement it for six inches while others prefer 
to use two coats, each three inches thick. It should 
never be so high that it will come above the frost 
line which is two and a half feet in depth. 

Water lilies, as well as all kinds of aquatics, will 
grow in any kind of good garden soil; ..that is, if 


one-fifth well-rotted manure is added to it. Pos- 
sibly this is not to be obtained and if so, a quart of 
ground bone allowed to each bushel of soil will 
bring about the right results. It should be remem- 
bered that the plants should be set out so they will 
get the greatest exposure to the sunlight. 

We have supposed that you have chosen a spot 
for your water garden that obtains the greatest 
amount of sun, also that it is sufficiently sheltered 
from the winds. It has been dug down from fifteen 
to twenty-four inches and then carefully cemented. 
Now you are ready to plant your pool, the soil being 
taken into consideration. If, by some chance, you 
are not able to secure the kind recommended, it 
can be made of three parts rotted sod and one part 
cow manure. Remember that it should be thor- 
oughly rotted if you do not wish ferment in the 
water. Too many people take little care on this 
subject and then wonder at the disappointing re- 

Possibly there is no place for your garden pool. 
In that case why not use half barrels or tubs ? They 
have the advantage of taking up very little room, 
can easily be sunk in the ground and are really well 
worth the trial. Nothing should be used that has 



a diameter of less than two feet and the greater the 
surface space the better will be the result. Tub 
culture requires two-thirds filling of soil and cov- 
ering with sand to have it the right depth. If more 
than one tub is used, why not make a rockery be- 
tween? It has the advantage of making another 
feature for your garden, besides adding pictur- 

There are two ways of planting as well as two 
kinds of tubers. They can be put directly in the 
soil, or they can be planted in tubs or boxes that 
can be sunk, but the latter recommends itself as 
more practical. The reason for this is that they 
are easily removed in winter and the water is kept 
much cleaner when the earth is free from tubers. 
It must be remembered that each plant requires 
from eight to nine square feet of surface room so 
that it would be bad taste to allow too many for an 
individual pool. If you wish, you can make the 
boxes yourself, using pieces of board for that pur- 

Next come the gold fish. For a tub, only two 
are necessary, but for a pond one hundred feet in 
diameter, twenty-five should be used. These fish 
spawn in June and have been known to breed 


enough to stock a large pond. There is an old 
theory, doubted by many, that the old fish turn 
cannibals and devour their progeny. These people 
advise the putting of roots and stock into a tub, 
this is so the egg may be attached, removed, and 
hatched separately. In cases like this the small 
fish are allowed to grow considerably before being 
returned to the tub. 

There are two kinds of tubers, the tender and 
the hardy. The latter require practically no care 
during the winter months, that is, always provided 
the water is deep enough to allow no freezing of 
the crown of the plant. They should be planted 
about the first of May and both varieties can be 
given the same treatment, with the exception that 
the hardy variety do best when planted in soil two 
feet deep and covered with six inches of water. 

All pools should have planting in addition to 
the tubers of submerged plants. This is to aerate 
the water and keep it pure and sweet. The best 
kinds to be used for this purpose are Anacharis 
Canadensis Gigantea, and Canbomba Viridifolia, 
ten of them being enough for a large pool. The 
former is a giant water weed with dark green ovate 
leaves and light stems. It is a quick grower and 


considered by autHorities to be one of the best oxy- 
genators in existence. The latter, sometimes known 
as Washington grass, is also popular. It has bril- 
liant glossy green leaves, fan-shaped and more 
beautiful than a delicate fern. In addition to this 
why not use the Ludwigia Munlerti, which is one 
of the prettiest submerged plants. It shows small 
ovate leaves that are green on the upper side and 
pink on the under. This makes it distinct from any 
other aquarium plant. 

A great help in the way of nourishment for these 
water lilies is the application when first planted 
or in the early spring of dried blood manure. The 
proper way of using this is to broad cast it on the 
surface of the water, using one pound to every ten 
square feet of surface. 

Too many people make the mistake of keeping 
the water too cold. This necessitates the filling of 
the pool and the leaving it to grow warm through 
exposure to the sun for several days before plant- 
ing. When additional water has to be added, it 
should be some that has stood in the sun for sev- 
eral days, as cold water injures the growth. The 
condition for growth is the same for both the ten- 
der and the hardy Nymphseas with the exception 


that the former should not be planted until after 
warm weather sets in. It is well, however, to grow 
them in pots so that they will be of fair size by 
June first when the weather has become suitable for 
their outdoor existence. 

If the pond is to be large, why not use groups, 
but if small, single ones will do. For their plant- 
ing, the hardy variety can be sown in either fall 
or spring, as one fancies. They should have a 
small hole cut through the shell of each seed with 
a sharp knife that they may do better. For the 
tender kind, do not put them out until they are 
well started. They should be sown in pots or pans, 
covering the seeds with one-fourth of an inch of 
sand, giving them a thorough watering and allow- 
ing them to drain for an hour. Then submerge 
them under two inches of soil at a temperature of 
seventy degrees. These can be removed into sepa- 
rate pots when they have shown two leaves. This 
kind is very desirable for cutting, the best for this 
purpose being the night-blooming varieties. 

The Pygmgea hybrid type and the Laydekri, as 
well, are desirable for hardy variety. The former 
is the smallest water lily in cultivation, a free 
bloomer showing white flowers, one and a half 


inches in diameter, while the Pygmaea Helvola, 
yellow in coloring, is very dainty. A combination 
of these two colors is always interesting, while if 
you wish the latter kind, why not try the Laydekria 
Rosea, which is a French hybrid and one of the 
earliest in introduction. Only a few specimen 
plants are found cultivated at the present time. 
The flowers are of delicate pink with a deep golden 
center that deepens into a dark shade of rose, pre- 
senting a novel feature in that it seemingly is one 
plant showing different colors. Another variety of 
this same order is the Laydekri Lilacea, three to 
five inches across, shading from rosy lilac to bright 
carmine and sending forth a fragrance like a tea 
rose. The Sultan is also very valuable on account 
of its free flowering, the plants showing never less 
than six flowers open daily. These are of good size 
Solferina red with white shading and yellow 
stamens. This is very rare and therefore brings a 
high price. 

Of the day-blooming varieties, we find the Ca- 
pensis with flowers of rich sky blue. This planted 
in contrast with the Ovalif olia, a new variety from 
East Africa, produces flowers eight to ten inches 
across of deep creamy white, faintly tinged with 


blue that deepen until the tips are a light corn 
flower blue with sulphur yellow stamens. The 
charm of this flower is its petals which are long and 
narrow, giving it a pretty star shape. 

For the night blooming Nymphseas, why not 
use the Dedoniensis, which throws out large, pure 
red flowers often showing from twelve to eighteen 
blooms at a single time, also the Dentata whose 
white flowers measure from eight to twelve inches 
in diameter and open out horizontally. 

Do not forget in your collection to include the 
Royal "Water Lily. Of these, the Victoria Regia is 
a well-known species. "While the plants are ex- 
pensive, the seeds can be bought for a much more 
reasonable price and are more interesting as one 
can watch them from their start until blossoming. 
The Victoria Trickeri is also desirable. In good 
condition its leaves are from four and a half to 
five and a half feet across, a single plant having 
from twelve to fifteen leaves and producing three 
or four flowers in a single week. These flowers are 
picturesque, being white at the time of opening and 
changing to deep rose pink, admitting a strong 
fragrance not unlike that of a ripe pineapple. 

In addition to water lilies one should plant dif- 


ferent aquatics, to make a variety. There is the 
Sagittaria Montevidensis, which attains gigantic 
proportions, growing four or five feet high with 
leaves fifteen inches long, the flower towering 
above, the foliage white with dark blotches at the 
base of each petal. Then there is the Butterfly 
Lily, a tender sub-aquatic plant that forms a dense 
clump three to six feet high bearing masses of pure 
white fragrant flowers that look like large white 
butterflies borne in large terminal clusters. 

The Water Poppy must not be forgotten. It is a 
very pretty aquatic plant with floating leaves and 
large yellow poppy-like flowers, and a continual 

The border of the lily pond is of almost as much 
importance as the flowers themselves. Iris makes 
a good setting. Of these, the Iris Hexagona, or 
Blue Flag, is interesting from the fact that it is a 
hardy Southern kind, showing rich purple and blue 
with yellow markings three to four inches across 
and resembling the costliest and rarest orchid flow- 
ers. The Dalmatica is one of the finest of the Ger- 
man type. It grows four feet high with excep- 
tionally large flowers of fine lavender, the falls 
shaded blue. The Japanese Iris is the grandest of 


all the hardy ones and the best are the double va- 
rieties with six petals. Kokinoiro, a rich royal 
purple with white veining is very satisfactory in 
growth. Combine it with the Sano-Watashi, which 
is white with canary yellow center, and the Tokyo, 
a magnificent large, white flower, and you will find 
one of the best combinations possible. 

Ornamental grasses are very effective for this 
use. Of these, there are so many varieties it would 
be impossible to name them all. One of the most 
ornamental kinds is the Zebra grass, which has 
long, narrow green leaves, striped white and feath- 
ery plumed. Mix it with the Pampas grass and 
you will note the artistic result. This grows very 
rapidly from seed planted in the spring and is use- 
ful for decorative purposes. The Feather grass, 
growing two feet in height, fits into this scheme as 
does the Tricholsena Rosea, which is rose tinted, 
making a color scheme when massed with the other 
ornamental grasses that is most fascinating. 

The form and surroundings of the pool, carefully 
thought out, make it a most desirable feature for 
both small and large gardens, and everyone, no 
matter how limited their means, can indulge in one 
if they wish. 





The life story of the sundial reads like a fas- 
cinating page from some old romance of an early 
century. The first record of its use was in the 
eighth century before Christ, when it was employed 
by the Babylonians for the purpose of marking 
time. Later on, it came into use in England, at- 
tached to public buildings. One of the most inter- 
esting was sho\vn late in the sixteenth century on 
the Belton House, Lincolnshire, England. It was 
a representation of old Father Time and Cupid 
cutting stone. 

A passing fad at one time was diminutive sun- 
dials, so small that they folded and could be used 
much as watches are to-day. They soon became 
very popular and attracted the attention of roy- 
alty, when Charles I was seated on the throne. His 
collection was the largest in existence and repre- 
sented all sorts of odd shapes and forms. The 

Stuarts were all interested in sundials, and Charles 



II had a large one designed and placed in the gar- 
den at Holyrood. 

While the first invented were crude, yet, as time 
went on, they became more popular, and different 
materials were used, such as wood, bronze and 
metal. The hour spaces were computed to comply 
with the locality in which they were placed. This 
required a great deal of thought and it was neces- 
sary to employ an expert workman. 

Flowers and hedge plants were occasionally 
used to represent this idea. One of these stood be- 
tween the ^'Shakespeare garden" and the '' garden 
of friendship" at Lady Warwick's summer home. 
The gnomon being of yew while the dial was 
worked out by the use of box, the lettering was 
outside and spelled the following motto — *'Les 
Heures Heureuses ne se comptent pas." This, as 
far as we know, was the first attempt at the use of 
floriculture in time pieces. 

Sundials might be divided into two kinds, the 
perpendicular and the horizontal. Each one of 
these has its own special place, the former being 
used on buildings while the latter was for garden 
purposes solely. In New York, one of the old 
perpendicular dials may still be seen on the Dutch 
Reformed Church. 


The horizontal was extremely popular in both 
England and Scotland, so much so that no garden 
of any pretention was considered complete without 
one or more of these ornamental time-keepers. The 
high favor in which the "simple altar-like struc- 
ture," with its "silent heart language," was held 
in England was well expressed by Charles Lamb, 
who said of the sundial, "It stood as the Garden 
god of Christian gardens." 

It is the revival of this old-time custom that has 
given a delightful touch of sentiment to the gar- 
dens of to-day, where sundials have become, more 
especially of late years, a permanent fixture. Many 
of these have interesting mottoes, some repeating 
the legends of other days, while later designs bear 
on their face a modern inscription. 

*'Let others tell of storm and showers, 
I'll only count your sunny hours." 

*'Time goes you say — ah, no! 
Time stays, we go." 

"I mark the time, dost thouf" 


**Tyme passeth and speaketh not, 
Deth Cometh and warneth not, 
Amend to-day and slack not. 
To-morrow thyself cannot/' 

By the time the American colonists had leisure 
to devote to the laying out of beautiful gardens, 
the day of the sundial was drawing to a close. The 
introduction of clocks had done away with the ne- 
cessity of depending upon such fair-weather time 
pieces, and furthermore, they were no longer popu- 
lar in other lands. So, despite its charm and value 
as an ornament, it was not widely adopted in this 
country. Of late years, however, in the general re- 
vival of old-time customs, this interesting feature 
for gardens has come into favor. 

The making of one of these time pieces can be 
carried out by a village carpenter, but the purchas- 
ing of an old one had better be done by an expert 
as there are so many reproductions placed to-day 
on the market. All that is essential in order to 
work out proper results is that the dial should 
have a firm and absolutely level base to rest on, and 
that the gnomon should point directly towards the 
North Star, so that time may be accurately com- 


puted. A stone pedestal is correct, although con- 
crete is often used. 

The design depends largely upon the type of 
garden and the owner's taste. The beautiful, 
carved pedestals imported from Italy are suitable 
only for the formal garden, and for our simple, 
less pretentious ones, wood or stone can be used, 
although cement has become very fashionable. To 
soften the lines of a severely simple column, Ivy 
and other clinging vines can be placed around the 
base. The location is a matter that requires some 
thought, as the sundial's charm depends upon har- 
monious setting. It should be exposed to the sun 
continuously and placed far enough away from 
trees or buildings to preclude the possibility of its 
being shaded. 

There is no set rule that can be laid down for 
its placing. One is usually safe, however, in locat- 
ing it at the intersection of two paths near a vine- 
clad pergola or mthin sight of a summer house or 
garden seat. Formal gardens use it frequently as 
a central feature. If, however, a water garden 
takes this central place, the sundial should be at 
the end of some alluring path surrounded by 
masses of bright bloom. The chief fault that we 


find in contrasting the sundials of a century ago 
with, those of the twentieth century is that there is 
now too much sameness. They seem to follow the 
same lines, more perhaps, than any other form of 
garden furniture. 

This can be overcome by designing them your- 
self, working out new ideas in the decoration and 
its motto. Here the gnomons offer a chance for 
variation for instead of a plain, simple shaft, it 
can be changed into an ornamental design that 
helps out in changing it from monotony to original- 

For the simple garden, why not make one your- 
self ? It is not a hard matter, that is if you have 
any ingenuity. The only thing we must consider is 
to have it set perfectly even, to be sure the pedestal 
is carefully laid so that it will not tip and spoil the 
marking of the hours. There are so many mate- 
rials that you can construct one from, there is no 
need of sameness. The most inexpensive is the 
rustic sundial. This is made from a small tree 
trunk. It should be about six to eight inches in 
diameter, tapering at the top, and show branches 
irregularly cut within three or four inches of the 
main trunk. There is a reason for this; it adds 


picturesqueness to the effect and gives pegs for 
the vines to climb over. Do not top it with a 
wooden dial. They are never satisfactory, for they 
are apt to warp and thus ruin the entire scheme. 
You need not go to great expense to procure a 
satisfactory one, for there are many materials to 
draw from, iron, brass and slate being the most de- 
sirable. The latter are not expensive as they cost 
simply the price of the material and engraving. 
It takes a piece that ranges from an inch to an 
inch and a half in thickness and should not be more 
than a foot square. For this, one should not pay 
more than seventy-five cents, although if it is cut 
round it will be a little more expensive. If you 
prefer to use brass it costs more and needs a ma- 
chinist who is used to handling this material to 
put it together for you and burnish the surface. 
You must remember that this applies to the dial 
only, the pedestal being a separate proposition. 

For a little inexpensive time piece for your gar- 
den you can make one of wood, coloring it any 
shade that you like but so that it will contrast pret- 
tily with the flowers. The only thing that you must 
bear in mind is that care should be taken in its 
setting. If it is out of plumb it will not keep good 


time. Should you, by chance, be able to procure an 
old mill stone, it serves two purposes, first it is a 
practical foundation and second it lends an old- 
time setting that is appropriate. For a simple, 
every-day foundation, stones can be laid about six 
inches deep and filled in with mortar. Cement is 
also appropriate and oftentimes bricks can be used 
to good advantage. 

For a pedestal, a rather good idea is to use sec- 
ond-hand bricks. These can be cemented together 
with mortar, the red giving a touch of color to the 
drapery of the sundial that is picturesque. Some- 
times a boulder is used for this purpose or a slab 
of stone. 

If you purchase a sundial, you should bear in 
mind that if it is a genuine antique, it may not be 
suitable for our latitude. In cases like that it is 
best to have it looked after by an expert and so 
placed that it will be a correct timekeeper. 

We tire of the same idea continuously repro- 
duced so why not work out a design of youi own ? 
This is hard to do, however, unless cement is used, 
when some floral design or ornamentation that is 
appropriate for the garden can be introduced. For 
the dial the gnomon is made much more interesting 


if it shows a unique formation rather than a 
straight shaft, as in the sundial at Didsbury, Eng- 
land, where a harp is introduced, and in another 
case where a dragon holds the uplifted shaft. 

The situation of this feature has much to do with 
its practicability. As it is a sun-loving formation, 
its proper place is necessarily in the open, but 
whether surrounded by lawn or flowers, is some- 
thing that everyone must decide for themselves. 
One reason against the flower setting is that it 
serves to hide the dial's meaning until you ap- 
proach it closely. The eye is attracted to the bright 
blooming flowers rather than to the dial itself. 
This is not so if it has only a sward setting. It 
then becomes a prominent piece of garden furni- 
ture, its pure white surface standing out vividly 
from its surrounding of soft green grass. 

Occasionally, all attempt at floriculture or gar- 
dening is abandoned. This is when it stands in the 
heart of a garden at the intersection of two paths. 
Then care should be taken that in immediate prox- 
imity there should be pure white pebbles picked up 
on the beach. This may re-act on the shaft, giving 
it an air of sameness, and in that case different 
colored stones can be introduced. One can even 


go SO far as to work out mottos in this way, form- 
ing the letters out of highly colored pebbles. 

To give it a rural appearance, some people set 
it in the heart of a bed of ferns. These can be 
chosen from a single variety such as the Boston 
fern, which is one of the most popular on account 
of its graceful fronds and the durability which 
causes it to keep green for a long time. 

Should, however, a lower growth be neces- 
sary, there is the Dreyii, which is a dwarf variety 
of the same species. A much better effect, how- 
ever, is obtained by planting the dwarf fern as a 
border to the circle and placing inside the Elegan- 
tissima, which belongs to the crested variety and 
is especially adapted for massing. For a delicate, 
dainty setting, there is nothing more beautiful than 
the Adiantum Ruhm von Mordrecht, which is the 
most beautiful of all the maiden hair ferns and 
easily cultivated. It is so graceful that it seems to 
add an almost poetic touch to the foundation on 
which the sundial stands. 

Have you ever considered placing your sundial 
in the heart of a rose garden ? Unconsciously, the 
sweet perfume of the rose does much to increase the 
sentiment of this particular feature of garden cul- 


ture. It depends in part on the pedestal as to 
whether low roses or delicate climbing ones should 
be used. If it is a plain, simple shaft, it can be 
delicately draped to within a few inches of the dial, 
but great care should be taken to obtain delicate 
coloring that will bring out the whiteness of the 

One should be very careful not to have the roses 
grow so high that only the dial is visible. This 
would spoil the idea which it represents — a sundial 
in a garden. One of the most artistic ways is to 
plant low, dwarf roses, near the pedestal just far 
enough away so there will be several inches of space 
between. The roses themselves should be planted 
in heavy clay loam, although light and sandy soil 
can be used for this purpose. Many people make 
a mistake in having their rose beds too rich. The 
fertilizer can be replaced, if exhausted, by fine- 
ground bone, which can be used only once a year. 

The dwarf Polyanthas are a charming class of 
ever-blooming roses with bushy habits. The flow- 
ers are double, delightfully fragrant and borne in 
large clusters, being covered with a large mass of 
bloom. For a combination planting, the Baby Dor- 
othy is very effective ; it is carnation pink, with the 


habit and growth similar to that of the Baby 
Rambler. The latter is very effective, rosy crimson 
in coloring, very free flowering, and useful in mass- 
ing effects. Add to that Catherine Zeimet, which is 
a great acquisition. to the Baby Ramblers, and pro- 
duces an abundance of double white flowers. 

Directly around the base of the pedestal, you 
can plant your climbing roses, taking great care 
to nip them back so that they will only show a trac- 
ery of leaves and flowers and allow the white of 
the sundial to peer through. For these, use the 
Lady Gay whose delicate cerise pink blossoms fade 
to soft white, making a most pleasing combination 
of white flowers, crimson buds and green foliage. 
In connection with that, why not plant the Source 
d' Or, which is deep yellow, gradually paling. This 
bears large clusters of double flowers, and shows 
fine foliage. For red, the Wall Flower is the best, 
as it shows a distinct coloring and has vigor- 
ous habits. Mix with that the Shower of Gold, a 
fine coppery gold color with glossy foliage. 

For the outer edge of the rose bed, do not for- 
get those used in our grandmother's time. They 
have lasted long and on account of their sterling 
qualities are still popular. They have a range of 



coloring and are so absolutely hardy, easy to grow 
and fragrant that they are advisable for this use. 
The Clothilde Soupert is a good color to choose. 
It is a strong, vigorous grower, putting forth large, 
double flowers like a ball of snow. The color blends 
from soft shell pink to pure satiny white. Mix 
with these the Souvenir de Malmaison, which 
blooms well in hot weather, its rich colored flowers 
being of large size, doubled to the center and pro- 
duced in abundance. 

For a Hybrid, there is nothing more effective 
than the Killarney, whose color is a sparkling 
brilliant pink, the buds long and pointed, the petals 
very large and of great substance, being just as 
handsome in the bud form as in the full-blown 
flower. For a soft, pearly white, the Kaiserin 
Augusta Victoria is advisable, tinting to a soft 
lemon, its fragrance added to its beautifully 
formed flowers, make it a joy in your garden. 

A rustic sundial requires far different treatment, 
and only vines that bring forth white blossoms or 
pale colors should be used. If Clematis is chosen,, 
the Duchess of Edinburgh is suitable as it shows 
double white flowers that are very fragrant. Mixed 
with this can be the Jackmania Alba, which i& 


white, shaded with blue. The Fair Kosamond, if 
one wishes a combination, fits in with the color 
scheme, being tinted white with red stripes. The 
advantage of these flowers is that the blossoms open 
in masses that bring out the dark of the wood and 
lend themselves to picturesque effects. 

Around the foot of the sundial, why not plant 
Poppies, making a circle about five inches in width. 
The Perennial Poppies are among the most bril- 
liant in coloring, the graceful bright-colored, cup- 
shaped flowers being borne on long stems. Mix 
with them the Oriental Poppies, which are the most 
showy plants possible for decorative effects. To 
fill in the spaces put in a package of Shirley, the 
combination of the three varieties giving a most 
fascinating touch of color. For the Shirley, why 
not use the finest mixed, as it will bring out white, 
delicate pink, deep crimson, and handsomely 
striped varieties. The Perennial is advantageous 
because it comes up every year while the Oriental 
are magnificent in coloring, more especially the 
Grand Mogul with bright crimson flower of im- 
mense size, the Princess Ena, bearing large, bright, 
orange-scarlet and the Marie Studliolme, which is 
a delicate shade of salmon with a silver sheen. 


Nothing can give better effects for this style of 
sundial than the clematis with a poppy in the fore- 

Color makes a great difference in proper plant- 
ing, the white marble or concrete and possibly 
wood painted white, demands a strong color to 
bring out effectively the white of the surface. The 
gray stone is not picturesque unless blues, yellows, 
or reds are used. These three colors can be blended 
so that they form a scheme that is most attractive. 
When it comes to brick you will have to depend 
upon white, or light blue for coloring. More care 
should be taken with the planting around this kind 
of a pedestal than any other. The red of the brick 
demands more covering than any other type. The 
Hop vine fits into the scheme, but requires a great 
deal of trimming lest it overshadows the brick, 
making a mass of green without any hint of the 
brick below. The leaves are fine, three-lobed, and 
rough on both sides while the loose paper-like 
straw-yellow Hop in the fall hang gracefully from 
the brick, making a fluffy but attractive covering. 

Fragrance is necessary in the planting of a sun- 
dial, then why not use the Honeysuckle? The 
Brachypoda is particularly effective for this pur- 


pose. It shows white flowers in pairs, and sends 
forth a delicious perfume that attracts one even 
before the sundial is viewed. The Hall Evergreen 
Honeysuckle is also good for this purpose, being 
a strong grower and constant bloomer. The flow- 
ers open white, change to buff, and are very deli- 
cate in appearance. 

This sundial should be set in a circle of green. 
At the edge of the border plant Iris. This makes 
a more effective setting than if a whole bed of this 
should be used. The well-known, beautiful Iris of 
Japan displays a great variety of colors, the chief 
of which is white, maroon, dark blue and violet. 
Most of them are veined, mottled or flaked with 
different colors. There are both single and double 
varieties. The beauty of this plant is that it suc- 
ceeds in any good soil, that is if well drained and 
given plenty of water when dry. They can be 
planted either in the late summer or spring, as de- 
sirable, and should be shown in masses, growing 
from two to three feet in height and lasting in blos- 
som for a month. For double use the Antelope, 
which shows a white gromid flaked with purple. 
Mix with it the Beauty which is a pure white. Add 
to it the Mount Hood, light blue, shaded darker in 


the center. These can be intermixed with the 
Crested Iris, a dwarf, showing handsome, light- 
colored flowers, and the Snow Queen, whose large 
snow-white blossoms are free flowering. 

The planting around the sundial rests with the 
whim of the owner, though, if out-of-the-way ideas 
can be evolved, it will add much to the attractive- 
ness of this feature of the garden. 


1 ■ >; «* . ■' -V- >. \-v: '\'i y^., . 




Have you ever seated yourself in your garden, 
more especially on a warm summer day, and 
dreamily listened to the musical tinkle of the water 
that flowed from the mouth of the fountain, drip- 
ping down from the over-flowing basin into the 
pool below ? It is then you realize what an attrac- 
tive ornament it is for your garden for it appeals 
not only to the eye but to the ear. Lowell pictur- 
esquely describes his idea of this bit of garden fur- 
nishing when he speaks of it as '^leaping and flash- 
ing," in the sunlight. 

While the pergola, the garden seat and the sun- 
dial each have their own appropriate use, they 
serve one purpose only. Not so the fountain, which 
never fails to convey a delightful impression of 
coolness, as it gurgles and murmurs, on its way. 
Surely there is nothing that gives to the garden a 
more picturesque charm than this, standing like a 

spot of color in a vivid setting of bright flowering 
12 163 


plants. In the pool below one finds constantly 
changing pictures of the blue sky, snowy clouds or 
summer blossoms, each one worthy of its floral 

As the garden fountain is merely an accessory 
and the beauty of the constantly dripping water 
and the rising of the spray are what constitutes its 
real charm, the conventional design can be simple 
or elaborate but it should follow the garden scheme. 
It depends upon its environment as to whether we 
make it the central feature in the design or a setting 
in the wall. Lovely effects can easily be produced 
if one is careful in trying to work out a right treat- 
ment, for the placing is fully as much of import- 
ance as the planting. Balance should be the main 

To the amateur who has had no special training 
in floriculture, the introduction of even a simple 
water spout is of interest. He watches its workings 
with a newly awakened enthusiasm, directing its 
course so that it falls artistically over the different 
levels of the rock garden into the home-made con- 
crete pool below. The introduction of this water 
feature gives a distinctive touch to even the sim- 
plest little flower plot. For a larger garden, what 


is more alluring than a fountain sending forth a 
high, vapory stream, bursting into a cloud of filmy 
spray? This is especially true when it is viewed 
through a vista or at the ending of a vine-shaded 
pergola. Around it should be planted a carefully 
selected combination of flowers or shrubs, great 
care being taken that they blend harmoniously. 

The size of the fountain and the breadth of the 
pool lend themselves more or less effectively to pro- 
ducing alternating sunshine and shade on the sur- 
face of the water. The basin is, in a way, of as 
much importance as the fountain design. It is 
generally round, although occasionally an oblong 
design fits better into the landscape effect. It 
should be from two to three feet deep and so con- 
structed that the sides slope outward much like the 
ordinary wooden water bucket. There is a practi- 
cal reason for this, as it prevents cracking during 
the winter months. The cost naturally varies, the 
size materially affecting the price. 

The background, demands more than passing no- 
tice. Nearness of trees is a decided drawback, as 
the falling leaves especially in the autumn, mar 
the surface and clog the outlet and make it neces- 
sary to clean the basin frequently. 


The best time to plan for any garden ornament 
is just before the early fall. The flowers are in 
their prime and one can better determine placing 
than in the early spring when the garden lies bleak 
and desolate. 

Many garden lovers with a desire for original- 
ity feel confident that they can rely upon their 
imagination to work out color schemes even during 
the winter months. Fortunate is he who accom- 
plishes this satisfactorily. There is great danger, 
however, that his castles in the air may fall to the 
ground through taking too much for granted. The 
grounds do not always meet requirements, and the 
result is not only wrong placing but an ornament 
that is either too large or too small for its allotted 

We are far too impatient to obtain results and 
it is this undue haste that often ruins the composi- 
tion of gardens. There is a great satisfaction in 
adding to and improving our grounds, much more 
so than if the whole work were developed at once. 
Almost every garden into which careful thought 
has been placed grows with its years. Few, if any 
garden lovers, but have felt a keen sense of disap- 
pointment at the finished results of their garden 


schemes. What was satisfying the first year, has 
later brought about unhappy combinations. It is 
this fact that should be impressed on everyone's 
mind, if they wish a perfect lay-out. 

Probably everybody who has become interested 
in floriculture finds the same difficulty in obtaining 
exactly what they wish. It is often hard to match 
ideas with reality. This is another reason for curb- 
ing one's impatience. The right things are sure to 
be found, that is if one is willing to take time. 

It is when comparing the gardens of the old 
world with those of to-day that we are impressed 
with the atmosphere of the twentieth-century gar- 
den, where nature is encouraged to be genuine 
rather than artificial. This is the height of success, 
the bringing into harmony of paths, ornaments, 
and flowers, omitting gaudy effects or over-crowd- 
ing with marble fragments. Simplicity should be 
the key-note in arranging this part of our ground, 
a simplicity that has been worked out by careful 
thought for it means hard study to obtain natural 

There are many materials from which our foun- 
tain can be manufactured. The most expensive of 
these are marble, terra cotta and manufactured 


stone, the former leading the list, while the latter 
is better suited to the moderate purse. This last 
is, in reality, a composition of marble dust with 
cement, and the result is most satisfactory, the fin- 
ished product showing a smooth surface resembling 
as nearly as possible that of unpolished marble. In 
rare cases, however, chemicals have been used to 
produce an antique look. Many people are under 
the impression that manufactured stone is always 
white. As a matter of fact, in the finished prod- 
uct, there are as many as half a dozen neutral tints 
shown. These all incline to a soft, delicate gray, 
sometimes with a blueish cast. 

Terra cotta comes next in cost. A detriment to 
its Use is that, particularly when it is shown in deep 
bronze coloring, it does not lend itself artistically 
to landscape effect, through lack of contrast with 
its surroundings. We find this material with both 
glazed and unglazed surfaces, the former being 
more expensive but not as practical as the latter. 
The most strongly recommended coloring is lime- 
stone gray, whose soft, delicate finish brings out the 
tone of the vines, and emphasizes the color of the 
surrounding flowers. Next comes the Pompeian 
red, only to be used under certain conditions on ac- 


count of its color. Colonial yellow has also been 
introduced. The two last colors are rarely, if ever, 
used for fountain designs, the gray being consid- 
ered much more advisable. 

There are many reasons why cement is consid- 
ered practical; its cost, its wearing qualities, and 
its appropriate coloring. All these qualities lend 
themselves to constructive purposes, and making it 
decoratively most desirable. 

The architect who suits the design of the garden 
to the type of the house will take advantage of this 
particular material. He has his ideas concerning 
the effect that he wishes to bring out, to emphasize 
the design of the house. He realizes that there is 
something more than interest in botany to be shown 
if he wishes to make this part of his plan a success. 
We have grown to a realizing sense that for the 
best results it is better to employ a skilled man. 
No clever result can be brought out through an in- 
experienced person planning the grounds, that is, 
unless they have natural ability such as few people 
possess. We have only to go back to our Colonial 
ancestors and study effects. It is then we realize 
the difference between home planting and architec- 
tural planting. 


Cost is not the only thing to be taken into con- 
sideration when creating garden effects. Char- 
acter should be considered as well. In order to 
obtain this satisfactorily, the accessories should be 
planned by a connoisseur, such as an architect be- 
comes after many years' study of the subject. The 
fountain is the most important detail and requires 
more careful thought than any other part of the 
garden setting. It makes no difference what its 
construction is, so that it fits in with the scheme. 

Great care should be taken not to introduce dif- 
ferent periods or materials when placing garden 
ornaments on our grounds. Take, as an instance, a 
home-made fountain and place it in close proximity 
with an imported one and note the result. You 
will see the lack of harmony. The Italian foun- 
tain belongs distinctively to the formal or Italian 
lay-out, and should never be used, with the excep- 
tion of making a central feature on a lawn, in any 
other way. If you place the Greek fountain on a 
hillside where landscape effects have been worked 
out through the use of cascades that dash over ter- 
races and under rustic bridges, you will see it is 
entirely out of place and in the wrong surround- 


Occasionally, we come across an iron fountain 
painted black or red. This metal is cheap and stock 
designs can be purchased, but the very best ones 
are private orders and can never be reproduced. 
The price varies as with every other bit of garden 
furniture from a few dollars up to as many thou- 
sands. The advantage of this metal is that it fits 
into places where marble should be avoided. 

Pottery fountains have been used within the last 
few years, and many of them are very graceful, 
being turned and finished by hand. This type has 
a special mission in our garden, its proper placing 
being in New England where the gray rocks, 
hedges and evergreen predominate. This mater- 
ial is shown in more colors than almost any other. 
These include gray, brown, green, blue, and many 
shades of terra cotta. This variation of color makes 
it adapted to almost any situation. One advan- 
tage in their use is that, strongly reinforced as they 
are by galvanized steel wires, they are climate- 
proof and practically indestructible. 

The location of this special garden ornament de- 
mands serious attention. It is often placed where 
it will attract attention to some special feature that 
has been carefully worked out in detail. More es- 


pecially is this true when it has been inserted as a 
part of the retaining wall and is surrounded by 
some choice vine whose flowers accentuate the ar- 

There are so many forms and features connected 
with this special garden ornament that there need 
never be any sameness. It is an ideal medium with 
which to recreate the fauns, satyrs and nymphs of 
the garden. Animals, too, are often used and so 
are cupids. 

The planting, which is of as much importance as 
the ornamentation, depends upon the size of the 
pool and its location. Shade requires far different 
treatment from sunny exposures, while the heart 
of a grass plot lends itself to little or no floral em- 
bellishment. The finish of the pool influences the 
arrangement of the flowers. Should it be very or- 
namental, the planting should be far enough away 
not to shut off its picture effect in the landscape. 
If it is simply a curbing, it should have a setting 
of green or of low-growing plants. 

Often an effective treatment is worked out 
through a border of velvety turf outlined by plants. 
Peonies never fail to bring out the right coloring 
of the fountain, that is if they are far enough away 


not to cut off the design. They are called rightly 
the aristocrats of the flower garden. For mass 
planting, they are most effective, their great gor- 
geous blossoms, daintily dyed and ranging from 
white to the deepest red, their wonderful fragrance 
and their decorative value are unsurpassed. They 
can either be planted in solid color or in a combina- 
tion that is artistic. The Couronne d'Or, beauti- 
ful white in coloring and showing blossoms of red 
in the center with a halo of yellow around, makes a 
picturesque contrast to the deep green of the tree 
leaves. The large, double, ball-shape bloom of the 
Felix Crousse intermixed with white, gives one of 
the most fascinating combinations of red and 
w^hite. The beauty of peonies is that they grow 
an5rwhere although they do best in rich, deep soil 
and with a sunny exposure. They are perfectly 
hardy, require no protection and unlike most other 
plants are not infested by either insects or disease. 
All they ask for is plenty of water during their 
growing season. 

Grandmother's flowers, which are so fashionable 
to-day, are particularly desirable as a planting 
around a fountain. The sweet moss rose trailing 
through the grass and mixing its blossoms with the 


yellow of the Scotch rose is often used for low ef- 
fects, or where very little coloring is advisable. The 
amount of planting and the height naturally de- 
pend upon the design of the individual fountain. 
Those that are ornamental are so effective that they 
need practically nothing to bring out right effects. 
Iris is always in good form. We find it to-day so 
highly developed that in comparison to the little 
fleur-de-lis that grows unmolested in the neighbor- 
ing swamp, it seems scarcely a variety of the same 
flower. As we are able to buy both double and sin- 
gle Irises, we should make a choice and not min- 
gle the two. The double with its flowers averaging 
from eight to ten inches across, is an artistic foil 
for the white of the fountain. Commencing with 
the German, which comes into bloom about the mid- 
dle of Ma}^, we can follow the time of blossoming 
through the introduction of the Japanese Iris 
which lasts through July. In their planting, better 
effects are produced if two colors only are used. 
This can be supplemented by a third if the coloring 
is broken by the introduction of a thread of white. 
For the German, why not use the Honorabilis, 
which is a golden yellow with outside yellow petals 
shading to a mahogany brown, or the King of Iris, 




which is a clear yellow. The Floreiitina Alba gives 
the white coloring, its flowers being very large and 
fragrant. These two colors can be enhanced by the 
adding of the Camillian which is a delicate blue 
with falls tipped a little darker shade. These are 
more suited for a fountain with a low curbing or 
for an informal garden where cement is used. 
They give a very pretty effect, their flowers being 
pictured in the water below. 

Pansies are never out of place. A very pretty 
idea is to have them massed for as many as eight 
inches around the curb. Choose for these, bright- 
colored varieties rather than dark. The tufted 
pansies, which are one of the most important bed- 
ding plants in Europe, are rapidly gromng in 
favor in our country. One reason for this is that 
they flower continuously for nearly eight months 
in the year. The flowers are not as large as those 
of the single pansy, but their bright colors make 
them a welcome addition to our garden. The rich, 
golden yellow, the violet with a dark eye and the 
white, are all three admirable for this purpose. 

Pansies love coolness and give their largest and 
finest flowers in early spring and late fall. They 
are so easy to grow, rioting in the cool, deep mel- 


low beds they love, that everybody should use them. 
They will endure all winter long if protected by a 
few evergreen vines. The size needed for bedding 
for your fountain depends entirely upon the width 
of the bed. The most superb specimens are found 
among the orchid flowering ones. They take their 
name mainly from their tints and variation of 
color resembling the gorgeous shades seen in or- 
chids. These are the most novel and distinctive 
strain that we have used for years. 

Have you ever considered the graceful effect of 
ornamental grasses ? They can be used with telling 
effects for the margin of the fountain, although 
care must be taken not to plant those that grow to 
enormous height. The Euallia Japonica is appro- 
priate. Its long, narrow, graceful green foliage, 
flowering into attractive plumes, give it a distinc- 
tive place for this purpose. Mix with it the Zebra 
grass, whose long blades are marked with broad 
yellow bands across the leaf. Intermix with this 
the hardy fountain grass which grows only four 
feet in height and has narrow foliage, bright green 
in coloring, cylindrical flower-heads carried well 
above the foliage, tinged with a bronze purple and 
is one of the most valuable of the hardy grasses. 


In the planting of the grasses, to make the best 
effect give the taller ones the outside row, letting 
the low ones fall over the water, mirroring in 
the surface below. One of the advantages in using 
this is that it attracts birds and butterflies. Noth- 
ing can attract the songsters quicker to your foun- 
tain than this kind of surrounding. 

Occasionally, we find that instead of planting, 
beds are geometrically laid out to surround this, 
the axis of the garden design. In cases like this 
we have to depend upon the borders for effect. 
These can be hedge-loving plants or they can be a 
solid, low planting. Scotch heather is very pretty. 
It should be grown in sumiy places with moist sur- 
roundings. Its racimes of dark rose pink petals, 
lasting from July to September, make it very effec- 
tive for this purpose. The Japanese Barberry can 
also be included, nothing equals it in artistic value. 
It requires but little priming to keep it in shape, 
while its fruit or berries, assuming rich brilliant 
colors in the fall, are most effective when used for 
a setting like this. 

If possible, try for flowers that have fragrance. 
It adds so much to the effect to breathe in the sweet 
odor as you sit watching the shading of the flowers^. 


the swaying of the birds, and listening to the musi- 
cal tinkle of the water as it drips into the basin